Today, agriculture is widely recognized as having various functions, not only in terms of food supply, but also in welfare and the environment. An increasing number of the aged, most of them male, are now willing to farm, and they begin cultivation after retirement, not as work, but as a hobby. In this thesis, I will observe their way of life as one possible life-style choice in this aging society. Post-retirement agriculture has been focused on in the media, though mainly to illustrate older people who live an active life. However, those who begin farming after retirement must also solve several problems and adjust to various conditions, such as the securing of farmland, financial support, accommodation, skills-acquisition, and additionally, also need support from municipal and other organizations, as well as an adjustment of the welfare-medical system. Here, I will try to investigate and confirm the above through example, and consider the possibility that post-retirement agriculture has become a 'life cultiva-
By introducing the new concept of 'Living/Well-being/Cultivating', this study discusses one useful approach in establishing a Neo-Community which is expected to appear in the 21st century as an alternative to the so-called 'collapsed community' of the 20 C. This research has its origin in a method that examines real community metamorphosis by investigation and also the researcher's direct observation through collaborative work in building a nursing home with residents. It was a symbolic project in terms of real participatory design by means of a workshop process. The new-town residents in Nagazumi, Fukuoka City, have been continuously cultivating themselves to accomplish through their voluntary activities, sensuously-improved and culturally-enriched lives. Their creative performance in the past thirty years could be understood as a neo-community empowerment process and the activities themselves were (the result of) an accumulation of self-commitment of individuals at each stage of life. This research will examine the conditions essential to the cultivation of Neo-Community in this important era of paradigm change in mental culture.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the changes in household composition and dwellings in midlife. We investigated the experience of living over the past 20 years (circ. 1975-1996) in 128 middle-aged couples in the Tokyo area and also Gunma prefecture. The results are as follows: 1) Changes in household composition are categorized into eight patterns. Seventy-nine couples have never lived together with their parents. Twenty-three couples have lived with their parents over the past 20 years. Other couples have changed their household composition on account of separation from parents, co-residence with parents, or parents' death. 2) The process of changing dwellings varies with each pattern. Those couples who lived separately from their parents moved out of the parents' house before the age of 40 and have acquired their own house. When those couples over 40 years old began to live with their aged parents, they rebuilt the house or purchased a new house to live in with their parents, or their parents moved into the couple's own house. Those couples living with their parents for a long time had lived in the same house. They tended to rebuild the house after parents' death.
Families with a member physically handicapped, who, through causes such as spinal injury, uses a wheelchair, need a house in which they can live in comfort. This study intends to obtain fundamental data on housing plan through a factual survey of 6 cases of such families, by focusing on how their 'sanitary spaces' (lavatory, bathroom, washroom) are used. From the survey, we have found that the wheelchair-user spends a longer time than the other family members in, and acts more on, many things in these spaces. Although improvements have been made, such as the installation of grab-rails in the bathroom in all the households, there also existed some inconvenience. For example, it is impossible for these wheelchair users to put the plug in the bathtub, or non-wheelchair users feel scared getting in and out of the bathroom because the washing area is raised to the level of the wheelchair seat. It can be said that a 'standardized' housing plan should be incorporated into houses for families with a member physically handicapped, while a narrowing of the gap between the member physically handicapped and other family members in terms of physical abilities and health care needs should take place.
In this paper, I will discuss the processes involved in the making of a large center of cheap sweets in the Kanda area of Tokyo. At first, the makers sold their sweets in their factories, but by the middle of the Meiji era, they had succeeded in building a market in the Kanto area. In the middle of the Meiji period, a few wholesalers were born, and the makers had no choice but to work through them. At the end of the Meiji era, some of the wholesalers changed their business so as to deal mainly with goods made by the new and large sweets enterprises, and became separated from the other 'inner city' wholesalers. Though the very poor makers still belonged to them, they also had their own associations and their own sales routes, and the tiny, cheap sweet shops which were scattered across the whole Kanto area were connected directly to them via the sweet 'carriers'. Just after the 1st World War, the sweets market collapsed and the makers transferred from Kanda to other areas.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the community support system for the daily and care lives of single seniors through research in both a rural and an urban community. The kinship network presently carries out the very important function of supporting senior citizens, but it has gradually become weakened in both communities. Moreover, even though the kinship network supports functionally the daily life and emotional needs of senior citizens, we have found that it is unable to maintain a care role for seniors who also need physical assistance to live. In the traditional village, we need to activate public support for them, and in the cities we need to build neighborhood networks to support them.