This study aims to clarify the dynamic state of life culture in the process of modernization by analyzing the shikohin culture, which represents people's lifestyles and values. Therefore, I studied the case of Tonga society in Zambia, southern Africa. Tonga people of all ages, both men and women, love to drink a fermented drink made from maize called chibwantu. Determining whether chibwantu is alcohol or a refreshing drink is difficult because of its low alcohol content. In this article, I discussed the characteristics and functions of chibwantu in the socially and economically changing Tonga society, comparing it with those of the local beer, gankata, and the recently popular industrial alcohol beverages. According to the discussion, while gankata retreated from the social space with the growing popularity of industrial beverages, chibwantu played new socioeconomic roles of facilitating intensification of new social activities, aiding women's cash-earning activities and simplifying the ritual. This change of social position of chibwantu is based on its longstanding cultural positions in Tonga society. That is, everybody loves chibwantu; one can express hospitality, appreciation, and compassion with it; above all, it smoothes human relations by enabling social consumption and can be the agent for achieving collective pleasure.
This paper attempts to describe women's role in residents' movements especially in reference to the movement against the construction of a railway goods line in Yokohama. Previous studies have indicated that women played an important role in residents' movements. However, their movement activities have not yet been sufficiently evaluated. This paper determines their movement activities and the manner in which women's role have changed over the past 15 years. The findings of this paper indicated that the movement formed a unique organization, which did not require a formal membership to the association. Since they considered their privacy important, their membership status concealed. In order to meet as a group in a common place, they constantly organized events, like "bazzar" and "kyodou kounyuu ( group buying)". In addition to allowing the women to identify themselves as a member of the movement, these events functioned to integrate daily life with movements. Most of the events except a conference centered around women's activities because men in the residential areas went to work during the day. Thus, gender role assignments shaped the direction of the movement. Some women criticized it, after which, a few men came to reconsider it.
Researchers' concerns toward the Korean people left in Sakhalin have been concentrated on their political, economical and social problems until now. As a result of it, their "tragic" history and the statements that they have been "made fun of" seem to be considered as generally fixed understanding of the situation. The author raises a question in this recognition. In this paper, author tries to reconstitute their history by certifying their independent and positive life style living in circumstances called "tragedy". The author introduces their viewpoints in which they compared the folk culture of Korean Peninsula with that of the one practiced in Sakhalin. Their testimony over their life comparison is nothing but their own self-portrait. We are able to confirm their determination and identity as a Korean ethnic group in their verbal evidence. Here we can draw a conclusion that their independent and positive life history existed in the midst of their so-called "tragic" life in Sakhalin.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the fundamental contradiction between the order and the spacial environment of pirates. This study is mainly based on a book about English pirates of the 17-18th century, "A general HISTORY of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious PIRATES" by Captain Charles Johnson, 1726. Pirates were predatory tribes, which lived only by piracy and also did not make nor form families. Therefore, it was especially important that the pirate laws functioned to satisfy the awareness of equality. One reason is that a pirate ship could not attain a spacial resolution for equality due to its structure. On the other hand, the ship was able to act as if it had just a single will. Thus, the pirate crews achieved freedom within the laws of equality. As long as they were able to perform piracy nomadically, they did not require to have a base ground. Pirates are one of the case groups being contrasting against a "nuclear family". The final goal of this study is to find the whereabouts of the fundamental problems of "nuclear family" and its housings.
This study involved the administration of the reminiscence method, using life-size meal cards as the stimulator, to 19 elderly patients with dementia at group homes. This was continued for three months and we categorized the conversations of the subjects. We verified the usefulness of the reminiscence method, administered using life-size meal cards as the stimulator, by conducting an effective measurement of the frequencies of speech categories, the content of the conversation, and the attitudes and behaviors of the subjects. This empirical experiment has shown that, while the comprehensive assessment of life revealed no significant difference in the frequencies of conversations in different speech categories, there was a significant increase in the subject about taste and custom. The assessment based on the observation of daily behaviors of the subjects revealed significant improvements in "attachment-and-detachment clothes and bathing" after the introduction of the said method. The experiment suggested the usefulness of using life-size meal cards as the stimulator when administering the reminiscence method to elderly patient with dementia. The cards are helpful in making them participate more actively in the planning and preparation of meals; the cards act as a means of communication with them.
Ho-lo-ke, one of the Taiwanese ethnicities, has its own culture that kinsfolk are living together in the same area. Moreover, they have established their residential spaces physically with the culture for a long time. The tactics to live together affluently is still alive in their daily lives, such as supporting system, networking among residents, community, and space design. The main purpose on this study is to reconsider the inflexible sense of values of modern housing, with those sustainable space composition principles, and rebuild the space quality by creating the relationships between environment, housing, and community. In YUE-MEI-CHI of ho-lo-ke village, it can be seen that space composition principles, and the way of life specific to Hakka have been sustained for hundreds years. From this evidence, we can conclude YUE-MEI-CHI has unique space structure from other Hakka. Their basic space structure came from original Hakka style but it has been compounded by adapting to Taiwanese climate. The main reasons to have been sustained for hundreds years are, 1) to utilize space of effectively 2) to constitute a community 3) to carry on their consciousness and tradition.
For most people suffering from an illness, the hope of curing their illness is the desired goal. However, as many illnesses cannot be cured with biomedicine, the patient will often be treated for symptoms rather than be cured. In terms of Atopic Dermatitis (AD), the standard treatment aims not to cure but to attempt to keep the skin in good condition with the use of topical steroids. However, some sufferers hesitate to use steroids because of the side-effects and try non-steroid treatment, hoping that they can be cured. This paper shows four cases of AD sufferers, through which the different attitudes towards a cure can be observed. One sufferer used the standard steroid treatment to only treat their skin condition and alleviate symptoms. The sufferers who used non-steroid treatments suggested by doctors and by companies believed in the possibility of a cure by ceasing to use steroids. The sufferer who belonged to the self help group hoped for a cure but had reservations that one could be found. By offering different attitudes towards the hope of a cure, these four sectors complement each other by accepting different types of patients.
The purpose of this study is to clear up the roles of the small inns in local community. As a specific case in point, the study examines the events planned by guesthouse "Nagano Guesthouse (Tentative)" located at Monzen area, Nagano city. The events are three. 1) shared meal as potluck party, 2) handcrafts, 3) meeting of local members. In conclusion, the study suggests the following: 1) The Nagano Guesthouse has a function of the tourist's accommodation. 2) In Addition, this guesthouse is created as a build up interaction opportunities among the local community members and tourists. 3) Also, The Nagano guesthouse has role as the communication opportunities with local members. 4) Therefore, the small inns has possibilities of role as interactive hub in the local community.
Tange Meigetsu(who founded International Tea&Incense Ceremony Tangetsu-Ryu )revived Chinese Tea Performance in Hangzhou. The purpose of this study is to consider the impact of Japanese Tea Ceremony on Chinese Tea Performance. In Zhejiang Shuren University (a private university) Tange Meigetsu taught Chinese Tea Performance (1992-1998), and since 1998 she has been started teaching Japanese Tea Ceremony Tangetsu-Ryu up to the present. Japanese Tea Ceremony Tangetsu-Ryu and Chinese Tea Performance in Hangzhou share common features. The following observations make it clear that Japanese Tea Ceremony Tangetsu-Ryu influenced Hangzhou's Chinese Tea Performance.