This article argues that the leisure classes of the United States in the early twentieth century "invented" the disease known as athlete's foot. The affliction came to be seen as originating in their lifestyle and leisure activities, such as sports. The name itself - athlete's foot -- served to mark the disease as belonging to the leisure class, in contrast to the lower classes that also suffered from a similar skin condition, but in whose case it was connected to poverty and wretched living conditions in urban societies. This also examines how the practice of being barefoot in moist floors at gyms, dressing rooms or pools, came to be identified as the source of the disease. The leisure classes of the 1920s often enjoyed playing sports, and in spite of identifying themselves as clean and pristine, they suffered from ringworms in their feet. Because ringworm infections were considered to be a lower class disease, it became fashionable to distance themselves by calling it "athlete's foot" or "gymnasium malady," thereby re-signifying it as having a leisure class origin and removing connections to poverty or dirtiness. This article finally focuses on the socio-cultural and psychological aspects of the stigmatization of "athlete's foot" in Japan.
The purpose of this study is to clear up the behavior accessing "Morning Service" Breakfast Special Service and these factors for people qualitatively as to develop the food and nutrition education program making use of character of Nagoya area. We conducted the life story interview about breakfast for people living at elderly nursing home in Nagoya city from June to August in 2008. We got consent to interview from 24 elderly people. We made their life history grounding on transcript and analyzed about the behavior accessing "Morning Service" and these factors. The factor that people start or stop accessing "Morning Service" was life events that can be classified into 4 groups. These life events happened with their aging in the food environment influenced by the social background. When people met with one life event, they had an object to satisfy their appetite. The objects were built up with food preference served with "Morning Service", sense of value about eating out and eating with someone, and knowledge and skill about food making. We think that people accessed "Morning Service" as one of measures to enhance their quality of breakfast or life.
Tug-of-war in Tonaki village, Shimajiri, Okinawa is held annually on the 25th day of the 6th lunar month with Kashiki festival. It is the purpose of this paper to consider the expected roles or functions in Kashiki tug-of-war from the two contexts that of inside and of outside of Tonaki village. Because of tourism movement in recent years, many tug-of-war festivals in other Okinawa villages are now following to solar calender. However, Tonaki village keeps to take place Kashiki tug-of-war according to the lunar calender even though the new event "Tonaki festival", which was created to promote tourism, was added. And also the village gives his prior attention to home-grown people in Kashiki tug-of-war. From these aspects, Kashiki tug-of-war seems to be maintained in some sort of 'closed' context for insiders. In other words, despite promotion of tourism, Kashiki tug-of-war is being "not for sale" for the tourists. Tonaki villagers not only dodge the expectations of tourists and of ex-home-grown people, but also take advantage of those expectations into their context to maintain their traditional value or tradition itself in the modern world.
This study analyzes the average of every generation's mealtime and standard deflection from the data of NHK examination of living timetable in 1941〜2005, using regular probability section paper. The mealtimes of every generation and every meal become late, at the same time, family members' mealtime become scattered every year from 1941 except people 70 and over, and the overlapped mealtimes of child and parent generation decrease rapidly heavily after 1970. Decrease of family communication is related with social movement in postwar Japan, and it can be regarded that decrease of family simultaneous mealtime have made decrease of family communication, and family common mealtime can be a key of regeneration of family communication.
It was occurred abandoned farmland became difficult for the maintenance management of local resources and it was felt uneasy about the decrease of multiple functions by the village function decreased. Study on it paid attention to the roles and the function of the local coordinator, the meaning and the function by NPO were carried out the role considered that activity support of the civic group of non-farmer were assumed to be a subject. NPO had the critical mind were related indirectly through the support activity, the civic group was able to enhanced for cancellation of the abandoned farmland, the farmland owner was able to lend it in safety. For cancellation of the abandoned farmland, it was necessary to get in cooperation with the new subject and tied a civic group with the will to agriculture, it was thought that at made to the system undertaking farmland and functioned as a local coordinator enough.