Objective: To clarify how elderly women living alone, who were 80 years of age or older, define food activities in their life courses and how they perceive current food activities.
Method: The participants were 12 women living alone who were over 80 years old. A semi-structured interview was conducted from August to December 2016 with the consent of the participants. Their conversations were recorded and the verbatim records were analyzed using M-GTA (Modified Grounded Theory Approach).
Results: 63 concepts, 15 categories, 2 sub core categories and 1 core category were extracted. Food activity was recognized as a role of the wife and mother. Participants also affirmed their role in the main stages of life. However, as they moved to living alone, they re-evaluated the role they had accepted, and realized that they had moved to activities that were valuable, meaningful, and feasible to them. They were also aware that they had accepted social connections through food activities.
Conclusion: Elderly women have accepted the connection with society through food and have changed the meaning and content of food activities according to their individual lives.
We investigated the sand and mud in the digestive tracy of natural Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) collected at six points of Nagara River and examined the degree of discomfort of sand by masticatory test. The sand and mud cause foreign substances in the oral cavity and bad taste. Gravel was recognized with a major axis of 0.28mm-0.48mm and was found of be difficult to chew with a major axis of 0.45mm-1.38mm. It is suggested that Ayu internal organs containing gravel larger than 0.5mm are not edible. More sand and mud were detected in the digestive tract of Ayu caught in the lower reaches (Sunomata area,Kagashima area,the vicinity of Aikawa Bridge and the vicinity of Godo Bridge) than in other areas. Especially near Aikawa Bridge and Godo Bridge, more than 50% of Ayu had gravel with a major axis of 0.5mm or more. Ayu in the lower reaches need to be cooked with the internal organs removed. The estuary and upstream Ayu,which are 85% free of gravel,may be cooked with their internal organs.
We analyzed menus of nursery schools that provide meals prepared without hen's eggs, wheat flour, and dairy products, as well as menus designed by representative dietitians of nursery schools in Gifu city. The results revealed that in both menus, rice, curry with rice, and soups were the most commonly served staple food, rice bowl dish, and side dish, respectively. An analysis focusing on the three major allergens suggests that the soups provided in Gifu city can be adapted to food-allergic children without making major changes to the current menus. Furthermore, it was found that hen's eggs were not used in the deep-fried foods of both menus. Another analysis focused on substitute ingredients revealed that rice flour was used as a substitute for wheat flour in curry roux and hashed beef roux. In addition, rice flour and potato starch were used as substitutes for wheat flour. Then, rice bread crumbs that were used in place of bread crumbs make it possible to serve deep-fried foods, hamburger steak, and meatballs to children with food allergies. Since yogurt-containing desserts could not be served, meals containing other supplemental ingredients, such as Japanese mustard spinach and dried small sardines were served. In the future, the national and local governments should take the initiative of compiling representative studies summarizing the current problems and the food allergy correspondence method at each nursery school. Then, it is necessary to disseminate these information with guidelines.
The present study aimed to clarify the current situation of food allergies response in the kitchens of school lunch facilities in Shiga prefecture. An anonymous and self-administered questionnaire was sent to 53 school lunch facilities (valid responses: 46, 95.8%). The questions included meal count, elapsed years of facilities, the number of cooks, operational system, manual for food allergies response in the kitchen, cooking area for food allergies response, cooking equipment and utensils for food allergies response, and awareness of food allergies response. Approximately 70% of responding facilities were taking with food allergies response in the kitchen. On the other hand, this study found that there was no cooking manual for food allergies response in some facilities. The group with a large-scale facility was highly responsive facilities and utensils for food allergies response. In facilities without sufficient facilities food allergies response were being dealt with making use of the existing facilities and equipment. The present findings suggested that there were needs for enhanced manuals of food allergies response in the kitchens of school lunch facilities.