Indigenous communities throughout Interior Alaska have actively engaged in various activities aimed to revitalize their traditional subsistence activities and food cultures. These are sometimes called “culture camp.” This paper briefly discusses them through food sovereignty perspective. First, “culture camp” can be seen as an effort by indigenous communities and their non-native collaborators to regain the control over the education of Alaska Native youths in the hands of the community. Second, hunters can apply for exemptions for the out-of-season hunting if the activities are for education purposes. Third, “culture camp” is increasingly seen as a strategy to enhance the well-being of indigenous communities. In conclusion, I argue that indigenous land-based pedagogy should be understood as a part of larger plan for indigenous communities to regain their food sovereignty. This includes a movement to change the regulation on subsistence activities and traditional food in favor of indigenous communities.
The environment for distribution of fresh produce in Japan is better than that in other countries. However, the loss and damage to fresh produce during distribution is more than 10％. To achieve a stable supply for domestic distribution and to expand export to foreign countries, it is now vital to control the damage to fresh produce. This review paper expounds the theory and methods for evaluating damage to fresh produce due to vibration and shock during transportation. Moreover, this paper also explains the requirement of packaging fresh produce and introduces latest examples of packaging that can control damage occurrence.
Considering that the move to e-commerce in food, beverage, and alcohol industries is less advanced than other product categories, there is still space for the expansion of the online trading market in such products. Imports of fruit and vegetables are increasing, which means that direct-to-store or direct-to-consumer logistics methods should continue to expand. While orientating themselves to cultivate fruit and vegetables that can be differentiated from imported produce, producers of agricultural products have the opportunity to utilize online channels for sales, focusing on processed goods. Given the tight business environment, it is not possible to say that a large number of family-owned farms are anticipating growth in the future; however, we can speculate that there will be growth in agricultural organizations, and in the online market for fruit and vegetables and related processed goods. In recent years, the number of agricultural organizations has been increasing. If this trend continues, the number of such organizations drawn to online sales will also increase and the online market for fruit and vegetables and related processed goods can be expected to expand.
Considering online purchases of food by females in households of two or more people in Tokyo and three other prefectures in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, 14.8% had made online purchases of “meat and related processed products,” “seafood and related processed products,” and “fruit and related processed products,” with 12.8% doing so regularly. For consumers, it may be that the online purchase characteristics of these three product categories differ in lifestyle grouping. The Naïve Group, with a relatively high online shopping frequency, comprises a small proportion of the whole, which is one reason why the use of online food purchase channels is not particularly popular today. Both the Frugal Group and the Cool Group have high levels of younger consumers, who do not tend to purchase differentiated fruit and vegetables. Agricultural organizations can increase demand by targeting the Achiever Group （who are comparatively older and proactive in their use of online shopping） and selling differentiated fruit and vegetables or luxury produce through online channels.
The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of two obesity indices, BMI and waist circumference （WC）, regarding the diagnosis of dyslipidemia among a worksite population. Worksite annual health check-up data in 2013 involving 15,289 subjects were utilized for this study. After subjects with missing values, on lipid-lowering medication, with TG values of ≥ 600 mg/dl, under 20 years or over 60 years of age, and smokers were excluded, we eventually analyzed 8,189 subjects （3,990 men, 4,199 women）. In this population, the diagnostic validity of the following three cut-off values was evaluated: 1） BMI ≥ 25 （BMI criteria）, 2） WC ≥ 85 cm （men） and ≥ 90 cm （women） （JASSO WC criteria）, and 3） WC ≥ 90 cm （men） and ≥ 80 cm （women） （WHO WC criteria）. Among each age and sex strata, relatively high odds ratios were observed for high triglyceridemia （TG ≥ 150 mg/dl） and low HDL-cholesterolemia （HDL-C＜40 mg/dl）, especially when both the JASSO and WHO WC criteria were used. The ROC curve analysis showed moderately high diagnostic abilities of both BMI and WC for high TG and low HDL-cholesterol values with the AUC range of 0.70 to 0.79 and that the appropriate BMI and WC cut-off values were 23 and 80 cm for both the men and women, respectively.
In this population, both BMI and WC were related to high triglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterolemia, and the appropriate cut-off values for both of these conditions were BMI of 23 and WC of 80 cm for both the men and women.
Two different storage conditions of short-neck clams ［1） Immersion in 3% NaCl solution; 2） air exposure］ were evaluated for the chemical changes and the freshness during storage at 4℃ for 7 days. The weight of the clams exposed to air significantly decreased during the storage period. The shells were closed or presented a response to stimulus after storage for 3 days in both conditions. The total viable count in the clams exposed to air increased rapidly after 5 days. An odor-based sensory evaluation revealed that after storage for 7 days in both conditions, about half of the clams underwent initial decomposition. After 7 days of storage, the percentage of clams that showed no response was 60% in the saline-immersed group, and 10% in the air exposure group.
The effect of cooking on shell-opening during the storage of short-neck clams was also investigated. For cooked clams stored in the NaCl solution, all shells opened completely after storage for 3 days, and 33% of the clam shells opened completely after 7 days of storage. For cooked clams exposed to air, all shells opened completely after storage for 2 days, and 93% of the clam shells opened completely after 7 days of storage.
Compounds such as free amino acids, ATP and related compounds, succinic acid, and lactic acid were extracted from the soft parts of clams and analyzed. Compared with that at day 0, the total amino acid content increased by 20-23% after storage for 2 days. The content of extracted compounds rapidly decreased after 7 days in clams stored in the NaCl solution. The K’ values, which were calculated from the levels of ATP and related compounds, showed a rapid increase of 17% after storage for 5 days. The increase patterns of K’ values and lactic acid contents were consistent.
“Adzuki Ann” prepared from Adzuki beans is a popular paste （Ann）, which is generally used in Japanese confectionery. In product development and quality control, it is necessary to perform quantitative evaluations using sensory evaluation and chemical analyses. However, few studies have examined the most appropriate methods for assessing the flavor of Adzuki Ann. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the flavor of Adzuki Ann, defined “deliciousness” of Adzuki Ann （Tsubu Ann type; paste with remaining grains）, then optimized the method for sensory evaluation, and identified aroma compounds contributing to the flavor.
As a result of sensory evaluation of Adzuki Ann used for preparing Dorayaki sweets available in commercial markets, we clarified that Adzuki Ann, which is recognized as “delicious” popularly, has “moderate sweetness and rich Adzuki flavor”. This accorded with the definition of delicious Adzuki Ann flavor. Additionally, sensory evaluation scores of Adzuki flavor showed a strong correlation with maltol and cyclotene content which are important aroma compounds contributing to Adzuki flavor. In particular, as a result of the addition of cyclotene to Adzuki Ann, sensory evaluation scores of Adzuki flavor decreased significantly. This suggests that cyclotene may be an inhibitor of Adzuki flavor.
This study was to clarify awareness and interest in the local event foods between young people and older people in order to get basic ideas for creating programs in which the elderly can pass down the local event foods to the younger generations.
The participants were 399 elderly people living in Hyogo Prefecture and 270 first-year high school students in the same city.
Both of them were asked about their awareness of 51 local event foods, experiences of eating them, and their interest in the local event foods. Answers to the questions were compared between the elderly people and the high school students. The elderly people were divided into three groups in order to clarify the effect of their age. Group Ⅰ consisted of people aged 60 to 64. Group Ⅱ consisted of people aged 65 to 69. Group Ⅲ consisted of people aged over 70.
The high school students had significantly lower awareness and fewer experiences of many local event foods than the elderly people. The people aged 70 or over had significantly higher awareness of event foods such as Urabon, Tanabata and Otsukimi and more experiences of event foods such as higandango, somen, botamochi and konoshirosushi than the people who were in their sixties. While the elderly people named New Year’s foods as local event foods which they wanted to pass down to the younger generations, the high school students did not name them. The results of a cluster analysis identified foods such as kinton, nanakusagayu and ohagi were the ones both the elderly people and the high school students were interested in as the local event foods which they wanted to pass down to younger generations.
This study found that the local event foods had not been passed down to the high school students while the elderly people knew a lot of about them. On the other hand, more than half of the high school students were interested in learning about local event foods. It suggests that we can create effective programs in which the elderly people can pass down the local event foods to younger generations based on the local events foods both the elderly people and the high school students were interested in.