Laigh Milton Viaduct over the River Irvine three miles west of Kilmarnock was the major structure on the first public railway in Scotland, the 'Kilmarnock & Troon', which was engineered for horse traction and operated from 1811-46. The four-span viaduct, designed under the direction of eminent engineer William Jessop (1745-1814) and believed to be the world's oldest surviving example of its type, is class A listed by Historic Scotland. From 1988, after nearly 150 years of neglect, the structure was twice reported by structural engineers to be in imminent danger of collapse. In February 1992, with a view to obviating this unwelcome probability, a Conservation Project was initiated by the ICE Panel for Historical Engineering Works with essential support from others and subsequently raised the necessary £1.06m for the viaduct's refurbishment. Work started last June and is due for completion by November 1996. The paper commences with an introduction on the historical significance and use of the railway and viaduct, illustrated by a newly-composed operational view depicting steam locomotion in 1816, an account of the development of the iron plate rails used from 1809-46, and identification of August/September 1816 as the probable time that the first use of steam locomotion was underway on a Scottish railway. A reasoned account of the Conservation Project and its objectives, strategy and modus operandi from the Secretary's standpoint then follows, with particular reference to administrative, ownership, contractual, funding, accessibility and planning matters. The paper concludes with the author's findings and comment arising from past and present work at the viaduct, including innovative investigation by radar scanning.
The October 1929 stock-market crash on Wall Street, New York, precipitated a global economic depression (Great Depression), throwing the economy and people of Japan into a panic. In Japan, Korekiyo TAKAHASHI, on his appointment as the Financial Minister in December 1931, initiated reflationary measures through a program for aggressive public spending (Emergency Relief Program). The centerpiece of the program was a series of public works projects carriedout from 1932 to 1934. In those projects, the Ministry of Home Affairs played a leading role, along with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Although they were organized as emergency measures, those public works projects had agreat impact on the subsequent system for the execution of projects. This paper discusses the contents and purpose of the Emergency Relief Program and the executed system for the public works projects of river, highway and port development, which were then under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Public Works, Ministry of Home Affairs.
In 1919, City Planning Law was enacted with “the Urban Aesthetic District”. But even now, we have only 5 districts designated. There are two groups, the group 1 was designated before World War II; Tokyo Chiyoda-ku in 1933 (294. 6ha), Osaka in 1934 (125. 6ha), Ise in 1939 (3.2ha). And the group 2 after the World War II; Numadu in 1953 (0.7ha), and Kyoto in 1972 (932.2ha). In this paper, we make the concept of this “the Urban Aesthetic District” clear by analyzing both the discussion in “The Investigation Committee on the City Planning Law (1918)”, and the historical case studies on these 5 districts.
After the Meiji Restoration, the new Government adopted a policy of ‘Rich Nation, Strong Army’ to catch up with the west. The policy consisted of developing unused land and launching various industories. Among these industries, mining had an important role. In this study, we focused on a mining town called Kosaka which was one of the three big mining centers in Japan throughout Meiji period. How did this tiny, sleeping hamlet in Akita prefecture grew into a modern city with such infrastructures as housing, rail-roads, water, electricity, hospital and theaters. Our study shows that the modernization of Kosaka was part of an industrial evolution which was promoted by Meiji Govement at the beginning and later on by private enterprise.
Many famous arch-type bridges have been constructed in Kumamoto Prefecture in the past. The well-known existing masonry arch bridges in Kumamoto such as Tsuujyun Bridge, Reidai Bridge, etc. were built about 150 years ago. These bridges were significant milestones in the general development of bridge structures in the history of Civil Engineering in Japan. However, it is little known that more than 20 concrete arch bridges, which may be called the next generation of the masonry arch, had been constructed in Kumamoto beween 1925-1955. Also there are very few records or papers with regard to their historical study. For this reason the writers started investigations on the unreported and aged bridges of Kumamoto Prefecture. In this paper, the processes of construction of these bridges have been analyzed and an attempt is made to evaluate their historical meaning. As a result, it is concluded that these concrete arch bridges can be treated as bridges with significant historical importance.
Chinese suspension bridges, which have been developed in the different way compared with the modern suspension bridges in 19 century, are reviewed based on the quotations taken from historical books published by various districts in China. In Chapter 3, Chinese suspension bridges are classified into 4 categories, and developments of style from category I to IV are explained due to the quotations. In Chapter 4, the most important property of Chinese suspension bridges, that is the use of iron chain, is explained and some quotations are introduced. In Chapter 5, developments of Chinese suspension bridges are compared with those of European bridges.
During the beginning of 1820's, French engineers got strong interest in suspension bridges, following the first American and British attempts. They developed two original ways for the suspension bridge design. One was a large theoretical study of suspension bridges, using the mathematical analysis of the French school of physics on early 19th century. The other was an empirical approach based on an accurate understanding of the “Technical system” of France. The Tournon suspension bridge, over the Rhone river, first gathered an impressive fruits of innovation: hydraulic concrete for foundations, attempt to use reinforced concrete, wire cable, trusses for the roadway framework. It was the rise of an European standard of construction.
At the beginning of 1820s, Saint-Etienne collieries were very promising, but enclosed by transportation difficulties. After the Napoleonic Wars, the new situation the (first French Industrial Revolution) led to a reorganization of collieries concessions, more favorable to an industrial exploitation. Several possibilities of new transportation system were tried, such as canals, roads and railways, to the cities along the river Rhône, where there were many industrial consumers and important ports. There are few papers and publications on the history of the first French railways, especially Saint-Etienne railways. The aim of this paper is to overview the design and construction of the first French railways by Marc Seguin. His tubular boiler of 1827 and locomotive for the heavy and hilly transportation are also discussed.
Oblique arches built with masonry or brickwork have to be used as an exceptional technique for transmitting the axial forces all over the voussoir. One of the methods for realizing this technique was conceived by Japanese engineers in Meiji or Taisho Era who attempted to match spiral brickworks to oblique arches. In this paper, we describe the distribution of these structures in Japan, and gather detailed information about the technique from literature available in those days. The findings from the survey may be summarized as follows; (1) the oblique arches in Japan are widely distributed around Kansai district; (2) the technique for oblique arches built with spiral brickworks was applied in three methods-“hericoidal”, “logarithmic” and “corne de vache”; (3) oblique arches in Japan were built by hericoidal method; (4) some cases were found in which these techniques other than spiral brickworks were employed such as ribbed oblique arches; (5) hericoidal method had been used since early days of railway construction in Japan, and this technique may have been introduced by English railway engineers in 1870'; (6) this technique is speculated to have originated from an Irish canal of 18th century or a skew bridge of 16th century in Florence.
In order to clear the channel characteristics of the Hime river, the history of the hydroelectric power development and the disaster were examined based on the consideration on the topography, the geology, and the disaster in 1995. In the Hime valley, a vast channel is clearly noticed on the mid-stream through the field investigation, it's considered that the channel characteristics are divided into several classes. As the results, the function as the sediment storage area of the vast channel on the mid-stream was confirmed. Furthermore, two follow in gcontribution of the existence of the channel characteristics were found: 1) For prevention of the deposited silt to the lower valley in the mountain disaster. 2) For stabilizing the main river-bed evolution for several years after the disaster.
Dams, weirs, and flood-gates are composed of a fixed part and a movable part. The former includes a weir column. The latter contains a leaf and its moving system. Almost all the dimensions of a leaf are decided by the cross-section of the channel and the river width. The movable part of a leaf is usually called a gate-valve system and has been improved with the development of machius and their control technology. In this paper, the authors analyze the history of the gate-valve system. This analysis gives us the precious suggestion on the improvement of new types of gate-valve system.
Civil engineers have to obtain the consensus of social opinions in order to produce the structures. As the result, the design of structures is reflected by the age and the social conditions. The level of a functional design, which has a social consensus, is defined as a design standard. The design standard indicates the top levels of technology in every age. A lot of matters are hidden behind the background of the standard. The history of the standard also shows the global tide of technology for an each structure. From a point of view, the history should be put on the trunk of civil engineering history in this sense. However there is no paper that analyze the history of design standards as aproblem of the civil engineering history. In this paper, as the civil engineering history generalize the authors the history of gate-valve design standards, for example, “Flood-Gate and Iron Pipe Standard” and “Dam and Weir Technical Standard”.
Floodplain management techniques were introduced as flood protection methods against the increasing flood damage. They were developed through TVA's pilot program in Tennessee after Dr. White's proposal of Chicago Univ. made in 1942. Flood insurance of floodplain management was authorized based on the National Flood Insurance Act in 1968 and it spreaded widely after changing program in 1973. It was reviewed in Assessment Report (1992) and being reviewed after flooding in Mississippi River basin in 1993. The future strategies of flood protection were described and flood protection policies of Japan and US were compared.
This paper, according to the diaries and documents of the prefecture civil engineers who were responsible for the improvement works of Johganji river in Meiji era, describes the details of this projects, which were almost not recorded, and the integrated irrigation works on the Ieftside of Johganji river that were constructed by community association and Toyama prefecture government separately in same time. Though it is well known that De rijke, the planner of this river improvement works, had researched the situation of the flood disaster in the area for one month since next month of flooding, the paper clarifies that he also came to Toyama 7 times, total longer than 190 days under the construction of the improvement works of Johganji river, to supervise the construction of practical project. From this, the relation between the career of De rijke in Toyama and the river works is presented.
In this paper the authors discussed the preservation of a masonry arch bridge “Nishida Bridge” over the Kotsuki River in Kagoshima City. This bridge will be soon removed for river improvement purpose. A masonry arch bridge is a valuable structure which not only plays its own role but harmonizes the environment. The authors made a historical value study and technical investigation about the Nishida Bridge. Flood control projects built for a short time flood prevention purpose possibly impairs historical masonry arch bridges and rows of houses and stores on streets which were preserved for a long time. As a result the authors proposed a construction of underground river tunnel by which preservation of the historical civil engineering heritage may be compatible with prevention of city disasters.
Nishida bridge, an arch stone structure of four spans, that crosses Kotsuki river in Kagashima city, was built 150 years ago and has been busy with automotive traffics in the past. At present, the bridge is being transferred to another place. Distinct element methods although originally used to model jointed rock masses, can also be applied to the analysis of masonry structures composed of stones. In this paper, a study of mechanics, namely, present stress states, carrying capability and stability of Nishida bridge is presented using distinct elements. During the analysis, Nishida bridge was dismantled theoretically in stages, and the above mechanics were studied.
The old urban area of Amsterdam was formed in 13th centuries, and developed during 17th centuries. It is devided by the canals laid out in a concentric circles, and has a characteristic townscape. The central area with the “Dam”, which was developed before 16th centuries, still remains with the organic townscape. The historical area around the “Dam”, was developed during 17th centuries. The area can be devided into several sub areas with the economical and social backgroud. These sub areas also are “townscape areas” with the canals. The composition of these sub ares creates the unique charactor of Amsterdam. The analytical study on the process of historical development of Amsterdam shows an unique method for the urban design. We have applied “the historical method” to the planning and design for HUTS TEN BOSCH project.
Tokyo municipal government investigated the state of its waer pollution inthose days and following the investigation legislated environmental pollutioncontrol ordinances that set a precedent in Japan. Since then, various countermeasureshave been executed to improve upon them. The polluting sediment had been deposited in every canal of Tokyo-port, andan offensive odour resulted. The project based on first sediment assessmentstandard was carried out in 1972, and had large effect on the purification ofbad smelling water in summer months, especially. Afterward, the relativity ofthe mud and water quality was analyzed scientifically, and thus a present standardwas legislated in April 1987. From then until now, the authorities havedredged 3.8 million m3 of muds. These standards are mainly concerned with chemical items. However, we thinka new standard is neccesary. We recommend to combine the bottom organismswith the chemical ones, and also expand the object areas to the intertidal zone and shoals.
The historical studies of Japanese civil engineering have not almost used newspaper as references. So, this study aimed to make the new studying way of the history of civil engineering by using newspaper. In this study, at first, newspaper articles written about the Japanese survey during Meiji era were collected. Second, these articles were selected into the some categories of survey. Numbers of articles in each categories were counted and made the graph. In last of all, we compared with the usual history of modern Japanese survey and the new historical fact found in this study. From this new studying way, it was found that the constructions of civil engineering paid attention from public opinion in each times and the history of civil engineering included the social background are made clear.
In the late Edo period, Kouemon Taguchi-a merchant of Akitahan-tried to counteract the effect of poisonous water of Tama River. The objective of this work was increase of agriculture along the river. This work is unique from the points of view, he didn't have knowledge of chemistry and he had no finansial supports. I saw that he had the rational thinking, and he started on this attempt for the purpos of finance. In this study, I evaluated his radical thinking and rational idea. And I show his work was not only Akitahan's need but also his investment.