The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on our society and lives. This impact is also important in science education research activities. In this paper, the purpose of science education research is reflected upon and the possibilities of this type of research in a changing society are discussed. The enterprises of science education research have been positioned as a type of cyclical knowledge evolution. Knowledge that contributes to a better relationship between humans and science can be created by repeating science education research enterprises in society, which include designing the goals and methodology of science education reaching out to people based on them, analyzing and evaluating peoples’ changes, creating a new theory and designing goals and methodology based on it. In today’s uncertain and changing society, circulating science education research that is aimed at wellbeing is conceivable. Science education research is expected to contribute to the creation of a better relationship between humans and science, including via the role of connecting the wellbeing of individuals and society.
We investigated the synthesis of calcium carbide (CaC2) by the reaction of calcium oxide and several carbon materials (graphite, coke, Binchotan（high-grade charcoal produced from ubame oak, i.e. Quercus phillyraeoides）, and ordinary charcoal) using a solar furnace, and found that Binchotan was a suitable carbon source for a student experiment of CaC2 synthesis. In student experiments, the formation of CaC2 in the product was confirmed by the reaction of water to evolve acetylene gas, and the amount of CaC2 was estimated from the volume of acetylene generated. Through trial lesson practices for third-year high school students in chemistry class, they understood the preparation and properties of CaC2, and deepened their interest in the use of solar energy as well as the history of organic industrial chemistry about acetylene.
The purpose of this study is to examine whether the effects of psychological safety for observation and experimental groups on critical discussion are moderated by self-efficacy and interest value. The results of the analysis suggest that psychological safety had a positive effect on critical discussion in high self-efficacy students. There was also a positive effect of psychological safety on critical discussion in the low interest value students. These findings suggest that students with high self-efficacy and psychological safety are fully capable of engaging in critical discussions. On the other hand, students who are low in either self-efficacy or psychological safety may not be able to engage in sufficient critical discussion. In addition, students with low interest value may be able to engage in critical discussions with a higher level of psychological safety.
Differences in understanding and interest about scientific topics between male and female children may reflect the characteristics of the region and school to which they belong. However, due to the lack of available information on this topic, the discussion remains inconclusive. This study reports on the difference in the characteristics between genders about the perception of science and mathematics among junior high schools in Okinawa. A questionnaire survey on eight affective perceptions of science and mathematics was conducted among first-year junior high school students enrolled in five junior high schools and a special science education program of a university in Okinawa. The two main results were as follows: (1) Differences of levels between genders about the perception of science and mathematics was found among schools; (2) Across the eight items examined, the items in which bias was found varied across schools. These results indicate the need to design future gender education programs that are tailored to the characteristics of individual schools and communities.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how teachers assess “students’ proactive attitude toward learning” in the area of “data handling” in junior high school mathematics. To achieve this purpose, we developed a questionnaire consisting of 60 items by combining three aspects of students’ proactive attitude toward learning, which are specified in the Japanese national curriculum, and the five categories of non-cognitive skills. We conducted this questionnaire with 48 teachers, and from an exploratory factor analysis of the result, we have identified three factors of the teachers’ assessment: an explorative mind toward problem solving in real situations, emotional stability and resilience to the uncertainty of the results of problem solving, and interest in others’ problem solving. We have also found differences in the teachers’ assessment factors depending on their teaching experiences. Implications for professional development and teaching are discussed.
To develop students’ multifaceted view of probability is an issue not only in school mathematics but also in society. However, in current probability lessons, the multifaceted view of probability is not sufficiently taught. The purpose of this paper is to clarify a condition for teaching materials that develop students’ multifaceted view of probability. In recent years, probability education research has considered the multifaceted view of probability from the perspective of modeling, and this paper will also take modeling as its perspective. First, we reviewed previous studies that analyzed the probability lesson, as proposed by National Institute for Education Policy Research (2015), from the perspective of modeling, and obtained two conditions for teaching materials that can develop a multifaceted view of probability: “validation of known model probability is not the goal of a lesson,” and “multiple trials themselves are not the goal of a lesson.” Next, we developed a teaching material and conducted a lesson for 8th grade students in Japan. As a result, it was suggested that teaching materials in which the results of two trials with different numbers of trials with equal empirical probability are presented and students are asked to compare them as to which is more likely to develop students’ multifaceted view of probability.