We report a case of subcutaneous Pseudallescheria boydii/Scedosporium apiospermum complex infection occurring in a 77-year-old Japanese female farmer suffering from interstitial pneumonia. Seven months prior to the current presentation, she noticed nodes on her right forearm after pulling up weeds, and the nodes grew larger. Two soft dome-shaped, protruded nodes ( 15 mm and 30 mm in size ) had fused together on the extensor surface of the right forearm. Yellowish-white, rice-grain-sized pustules clustered on the surface. Histopathological examination of the skin specimen showed large and small abscesses surrounded by epithelioid granuloma; separate branching hyphae within the granulation tissue were stained with PAS. No grains were observed. Fungal culture yielded fast-growing, grayish-white, fluffy colonies which were identified as Scedosporium apiospermum (Clade 4) using sequence analysis of the β-tubulin gene. We also reviewed 28 previously reported Japanese cases of P. boydii or S. apiospermum infection presenting with skin manifestations.
We developed a novel murine candidiasis model of the gastrointestinal tract using N-acetylglucosamine ( GlcNAc ) as a tool to aggravate symptoms. Forty-eight hours after intragastrically inoculating Candida albicans cells to immunosuppressed and GlcNAc-treated mice, vigorously accumulating patchy whitish plaques were observed on their inner stomach surface. Candida cells colonizing the plaques consisted of both yeast and mycelia, and were directly stained with Calcofluor White M2R. Aggravation of the candidiasis symptoms was dependent on GlcNAc concentration in drinking water, wherein administration of 50 mM GlcNAc not only severely worsened stomach symptoms, but also significantly increased Candida cell number in the stomach and small intestine. The aggravation effect of GlcNAc was enhanced by addition of sedative chemical chlorpromazine chloride after inoculation. In order to semi-quantitatively assess colonization by Candida in the stomach, we devised a new symptom scoring system that represents the extent of the patchy whitish plaques on the mucosal epithelium of the stomach. Histochemical analysis of Candida-infected tissues revealed not only a large amount of thick Candida mycelia invading mucosal epithelial stomach tissues but also infiltrating inflammatory cells. These results suggest that this murine gastrointestinal candidiasis model could serve as a useful tool for evaluating the protective activity of antifungal agents, probiotics, or functional foods against gastrointestinal candidiasis. Furthermore, from another point of view, this novel murine model could also be used to analyze the pathological mechanisms behind the translocation of C. albicans across intestinal barriers, which results in systemic Candida dissemination and infection.