Occasionally in myeloid leucaemia, there is an increase rather than a decreas in megacaryocytes counts in bone marrow. To the qualitative or more exactly quantitative changes of megacaryocytes, however, little attention has been paid in the literature, especially in acute forms. This paper deals with the appearance of megacaryocytes as found in acute and chronic myelogenous leucaemias. The materials of the present study contain 50 cases of acute myelosis, 16 cases of chronic myelosis and 62 cases of miscellaneous disorders. The number of megacaryocytes contained in 1 cmm. was indirectly enumerated using our own formula from average counting of them in 1cm2 area of bone marrow smears under the low power microscopic magnification. The cells were then examined under the oil immersion objective for structural details. The maturation and the platelets-forming activity of the cells were determined by performing a differential count after the classification of Rohr and also of De La Fuente. In most cases of acute myelosis, the megacaryocytes decreased in number and only 2 cases showed moderate increase of number of the cells in bone marrow. Using the Rohr's classification, the megacaryocytic reaction in 50 cases of acute myelosis were classified into three distinct groups. The first is characterized by a marked inhibition of platelet-forming with some changes in the process of maturation. The number of megacaryocytes in this group is sometimes increased and the immature forms of these cells are frequently larger than normal and show some toxic changes. The second is characterized by a rapid multiplication of cells and an elevation of platelet-formation. The size of megacaryocytes is smaller than normal iu every developmental stage and the nuclei of these cells show frequently small, oval shaped, pyknotic particles. The third show o normal or low total number of the cells, without marked changes in the process of maturation and platelet-formation. Of 50 cases, 4 cases were included in group II and other 11 cases were differentiated in group. I. Although the quantitative and structural changes of megacaryocytes in the patients of group II or I were considered as some specific changes of leukemic proliferating cells, it will be necessary some further detailed observations to conclude this.
Hitherto very limited studies have been undertaken for separation and purification of human leukocytes and blood platelets, except for cytochemical studies and other special purposes, due chiefly to the difficulty in the technique for obtaining these formed elements in pure and intact condition and in quantities ample enough for the studies. The author's method consists in using liquid paraffin for the non-wetting surface, subsurface transfer technique having been applied in a closed system. The centrifugal fractionation is carried out at the optimal temperature of 4°C and in shortest possible time. For leukocyte separation Cohn's fraction I has been added, utilizing the albumin flotation method occasionally. By this method, not at all inferior to the methods employed by other workers, the leukocytes gave fair results and the blood platelets almost ideal results, as illustrated in Figs. 1-6. Using the materials as prepared by the author's method, examination of amino acids and other biochemical studies have been made. Although the purity of each fraction is satisfactory to a certain degree, such requirments as the recovery rate, freshness and intactness of the cellular elements must further be considered. The improvement in the method is now being made.
The Charcot-Leyden's crystal, which was found in the blood of the leukemia by Zenker in 1851, yet involves many problems today. Followings are the results of my study on the crystals found in the pleura-fluid of artificial-pneumothorax. 1) Almost all crystals are found in the eosinophil cells. 2) The higher is the shade temperature, the shorter is the time needed to find the crystal. 3) The eosinophil cells, in which the crystls are found, are homogeneous in some case, or have no nucleus and eosinophil granule; but in another case, have both of them. 4) If the soap-solution added, the time to find the crystal in the cells can be shortened. 5) No crystals are found in the losinophil cells dyed with Gimsa-solution. 6) The crystals are soluble in the médium of acid and alkali, but insoluble in the organic solvent. The crystals are insoluble in the water, although their shapes are changed into spindle when sufficient time is given.
The author examined the fungistatic action of unsaturated seven-membered ring compounds i. e. hinokitiol, hinokitiol-natrium, tropolone, 3, 5-dibromotropolone, 3, 5, 7-tribro-motropolone and mercaptotropone on eleven species of cerophilic fungi named by Hans Molish: aspergillus, penicillium etc. The author used the Czapek-Dox medium from which FeSO4 was excluded. He added various quantities of the above mentioned derivative to the medium, in which he culutured the fungi and observed them for two weeks, keeping them in an oven at 25°C. The complete fungistatic concentration of hinokitiol-natrium was 10 γ/cc for penicillium, 70 γ/cc for aspergillus flavus and fusarium, and 20-30 γ/cc (0.107-0.161 millimol) for the other fungi. The fungistatic potency of hinokitiol was at 10-40 γ/cc (0.060-0.240 millimol). It was at 5-40 γ/cc (0.40-0.326 millimol) for tropolone, 5-10 γ/cc (0.036-0.072 millmol) for mercaptotropone. Thus, mercaptotropone was a little stronger than others except on fusarium. 3, 5-dibromotropolone and 3, 5, 7-tribromotropolone had only incomplete fungistatic power at 100 γ/cc (0.357-0.278 millimol). Accordingly, the orders of fungistatic potency of these seven-membered ring compounds on cerophilic fungi are as follow: -1. mercapto-tropone 2. hinokitiol 3. hinckitiol-natrium 4. tropolone. 3, 5-dibromotropolone and 3, 5, 7-tribro motropolone are weaker than the above four compounds.
For the purpose of investigating the relation between anemia of renal disease and the iron metabolism, I measured the amount of iron contained in peripheral and bone marrow bloods as well as the iron-binding capacity of serum. From the above and several other experiments, I have obtained the following results: 1) It is recognized that the total iron amount in blood has a parallel relation with the number of erythrocytes and the amount of hemoglobin. It is, therefore, obvious that the total amount of iron contained in blood is directly related to anemia. 2) The iron amount in serum is not always in a parallel relation with the whole amount of iron in blood. In renal disease, it decreases in general and shows a remarkable diminution especially in nephrotic syndrome and contracted kidney. The iron-binding capacity of serum is also admitted to be in the same inclination. 3) The iron amount in serum is not always parallel with the total plasma protein and, furthermore, does not correspond with the extent of anemia. 4) No parallel relation is admitted between the pH of serum and its contained iron amount. The iron-binding capacity of serum is alike. 5) Iron contained in 0.1cc of bone marrow blood trends to decrease in nephrotic syndrome, which seems to be parallel with the diminution of the number of reticulocytes. 6) It is also recognized that, in nephrotic syndrome, a considerable amount of iron combining with protein is excreted in urine. 7) It seems, in short, that the severe, or unredeemed anemia in renal disease, especially in nephrotic syndrome, is brought on by the disturbance of blood-forming organs, which is caused by the bad reciprocation of the dysfunction of iron conveyance and utilization and the diminution of the iron amount in body due to the dysfunction of the iron absorption and its remarkable excretion in urine.
Kimographing the curve of intrapleural pressure in the course of the artificial pneumothorax treatment, the auther tried to investigate the relationship between in-trapleural pressure and the complications in the pneumothorax treatment such as pleural effusion, atelectasis and unexpandable lung. Five types of the curve were obtained according the forms and the amplitude of intrapleural pressure. In the most of the unexpandabl lung, the amplitude of the intrapleural pressure curve remained within 5cm/H2O and the maximal negativ pressure was within -10cm/H2O, while in the majority of the unexpandable lung, the amplitude exceeded over 5cm/H2O and the maximal negative pressure over -10cm/H2O. No correlation was found between the existence of sinus effusion and the amplitude of this curve, but in many cases when the pleural effusion in large amount persisted over six months and atelectasis was complicated, the amplitude of the intrapleural pressure curve exceeded over 5cm/H2O. So the disturved distensibility of the lung was assumed. The duration of the pneumothorax treatment showed no correlation with the amplitude of the intrapleural pressure curve, so the artificial pneumothorax treatment was succeeded in the majority of the cases without atelectasis, large amount of pleural effusion or the unexpandable lung even after over three years, so far as the amplitude remained within 5cm/H2O. If the amplitude of the intrapleural pressure curve exceeded over 5cm/H2O and inspiratory maximal negative pressure over-10cm/H2O, the succession of the pneumothorax treatment should be reflected. This was proved by the cases in which I followed to study on the reexpansion of the lung roentgenologically over six months after the cessation of the pneumothorax treatment, comparing with the intr apleural pressure curve immediately before the cessation of the pneumothorax treatment. From above mentioned, Kimographing of the intrapleural pressure curve could be considered as a indicator in the course of the pneumothorax treatment.