The studies were performed from various angles to clarify the reasons why the results obtained from Parri's, Davis' as well as Obermayer's reactions that were equally considered to be the methods to find indole derivatives in urine do not always coincide with each other. The results obtained from this study are summerized as follows: Chromogen in Parri's reaction consists mainly of indican. As a method to find indican, Obermayer's reaction is more sensitive than Parri's reaction. It is negative in Davis' reaction by using indican alone, but it turns to be positive in case added to isatin or negative urine of Davis' reaction. The above mentioned three reactions will never be affected by indole, scatole, 1-tryptophan, isatin or indolacetic acid. Observing a normal rabbit made after the injection of indole, Parri's, Davis' and Obermayer's reactions proved to be all positive. But in case the scatole injection was made, only Parri's reaction became positive. The three reaction were all negative when indolacetic acid, 1-tryptophan or isatin had been injected. When the injection of indole was made to a liver injured rabbit, longer time was required to start showing the positive Porri's reaction than that to a normal rabbit, while Davis' reaction was negative, and excretions of chromogen in Parri's reaction and indican were reduced. In case indole was injected to a rabbit that was burdened with the extract of cancer urine, Parri's and Davis' reactions kept positive longer compared with the rabbit that injected of uric extract of the healthy man.
1) The Ballistocardiograms of 27 normal adults were recorded by Yoneyama's table type vectorballistocardiograph. 2) The mean, standard deviation and range for the QH time, QI time and QJ time obtained from the longitudinal ballistocardiogram were given. 3) The mean, standard deviation and range of coefficiency of variants for the QH time, QI time, QJ time, IJ amplitude and HI amplitude were given. 4) The exspiratory/inspiratory ratio of the HI-and IJ amplitude were given. 5) Results of spatial vectors of H wave, I wave and J wave in frontal plane were discussed.
1) The ballistocardiograms of 27 patients with essential hypertention without conplications as cardiac failure, cardiac enlargement or chronic nephritis were recorded by Yoneyama's table type vectorballistocardiograph. 2) The mean, standard deviation and range for the QH time, QI time and QJ time obtained from the longitudinal ballistocardiogram were given. Following differences in ballistocardiograms were recognized between hypertensive patients and normal adults. a) The QJ time in hypertensive patients was shorter than that in normal adults. b) The IJ intervals in hypertensive patients were shorter than that in normal adults. c) There were increased variations in the QH time, QI time and QJ time in hypertensive patients. 3) The means of the exspiratory/inspiratory ratio of the HI-and IJ amplitude were 0.46 and 0.53 respectively. These values were higher than those in normal adults. 4) Some differences in spatial vectors of H wave, I wave and J wave were also recognized between hypertensive patients and normal adults.
Until recently, reliable reports concerning the platelet count of pregnant women have been seldom obtained, though many papers on this matter have been published. On the functional aspects of megakaryocytes, on the other hand, only a few reports were available, and the results of these studies seemed to remain discrepant. Thus, the author has studied the change in platelet count during the period of maternity and puerperium on 144 normal pregnant women. The trnsition pattern of megakaryocytes in these stadia was also observed on 37 subjects. Furthermore, the changes in platelets and megakaryocytes by artificial abortion have been studied in six instances. 1) In the first and second trimester of pregnancy, platelet count revealed apparent decrease or a tendency to decrease. But it trended to increase in the last trimester of pregnancy, and by puerperium it seemed to return to the normal. 2) The numbers of megakaryocytes generally increased during the course of maternity; the increase in megakaryocyte count seemed rather mild in the first trimester, but later this tendency was enhanced gradually and maximum megakaryocyte count was proved in puerperium. The platelet forming ability of each megakaryocytes was declined in the first and second trimester. But an increasing tendency of platelet forming ability of the megakaryocytes was seen by the last trimester and reached to normal by puerperium. 3) Platelet count and megakaryocytes picture of women, who were undergone artificial abortion in early period of pregnancy, showed a tendency to return to normal to compare with that of unoperated subjects, but it seemed rather weak than that expected in puerperium. The returing in platelet count and megakaryocytes picture following the artificial abortion performed during the latter half of term was markedly enhanced, and nearly the same to that of puerperium, to compare with that expected in subjects operated during the former half of term. 4) It is inferred, therefore, from the results of this study that the thrombocytopenia developed in the course of pregnancy is due to, at least in a part, the decreased platelet forming ability of megakaryocytes. 5) It is also suspected that the functional abnormality of megakaryocytes seems to originate from the development of chorionic gonadotropin in pregnant women.
The author examined the antifungal activity of 6 unsaturated seven-membered ring compounds on 8 species of candida: C. albicans YU 1200, C. albicans 406 MGL 3rd AAL Duke university, C. krusei, C. parakrusei, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. stella-toidea 264 Haverd university. The author used Czapek's modified medium from which FeSO4·7H2O was excluded. The results were as follows: The minimum inhibitory concentration of hinokitiol was 1-10mcg/ml on 8 species of candida. It was 2.5-25mcg/ml for hinokitiol-natrium and also for tropolone. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration of hinokitiol was 3.9 mcg/ml against 8 strains of candida. It was 7.2mcg/ml for hinokitiol-natrium and 9.1 mcg/ml for tropolone. Therefore, it has been proved that hinokitiol, hinokitiol-natrium and tropolone have a strong inhibitory action against fungi of genus candida. On the other hand, hinokitiol ammonium sulfonate, 3·5-dibromotropolone and 3·5·7-tribromotropolone did not show the growth inhibitory effects on them in the concentration of 100 mcg/ml. As a control, the author experimented the antifungal effect of trichomycin and nystatin against them. The minimum inhibitory concentration of trichomycin was 0.5-5mcg/ml and it was 2.5-25mcg/ml for nystatin. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration of trichomycin was 2.5mcg/ml and it was 9.4 mcg/ml for nystatin. Accordingly, it was confirmed that the antifungal activities of hinkitiol, hinokitiol-natrium and tropolone were almost the same as trichomycin or nystatin on 8 species of candida.
In 137 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis serum uric acid level was determined by Newton's method. The mean value in 100 male patients was 3.74±0.98mg per dl, and the mean value in 37 female patients was 3.04±0.87mg per dl. This difference in sex is statistically significant. Between age and serum uric acid level there was not a significant correlation. On the other hand there was found a correlation between the pathological findings in chest X-ray and the serum level of it; i.e. severer the pathological findings in chest X-ray was, lower the uric acid level in serum was. It was also lower in the patients with positive culture in sputum than the patients with negative culture. The administration of PAS, SM or INH showed no appreciable influence on the uric acid level of patients. Urinary output of uric acid was mesured in 28 patients taking ordinary diet of author's sanatorium and the mean daily output was estimated as 497(122-872)mg and there was found no correlating factor with this value, with the exceptin of PZA administration, which will be discussed in next paper.
Patients receiving PZA showed hyperuricemia and the renal mechanism was found to be involved in this phenomenon. In patients receiving PZA (1.5-3.0gm per day) with the combination of INH (200-300mg per day), the serum level of uric acid rose and reached to a peak in 2 weeks; i.e. from pretreatment level of 3.85(2.0-6.8)mg per dl in mean value to peak value of 8.13(6.0-10.7)mg per dl. The daily output of uric acid fall more rapidly, reaching to a peak value in 1 week which was 296.8(90-552)mg per day in mean value. After 1/2 month, there was no significant change in uric acid serum level and urinary output. In this observation, there was found no significant correlation between these values and the dosis of PZA. In patients treated by PZA, creatinine clearance showed no appreciable change, but uric acid clearance decreased markedly. The urate/creatinine clearance ratio was low that is 0.02-0.04. This may suggest that the reduction of the output of uric acid does not come from the involvement of glomerular mechanism, but from the involvement of tubular mechanism. During PZA-INH treatment, there was no pathological change in N. P. N. and water test. Probenecid (2gm per day) was administered 4 days to the four patients receiving PZA-INH therapy and it was found that the uric acid clearance returned to control level. Probenecid might possess an antagonistic tubular effect to PZA. After stop of the administration of PZA, the serum uric acid of all patients decreased to control level in 7-10 days. So the effect of PZA on tubular function of the kidney is reversible. Also in two patients died after taking long term chemotherapy of PZA (daily 1.5gm and 3.0gm) and INH, the autopsy finding revealed no appreciable change of the kidney. The clinical application of PZA seems to be justified in the relation of its side effect of hyperuricemia and the application of probenecid may have some beneficial effect.
In two hundred cases of internal diseases with exudate or transudate we carried on a research in pathogenesis of body fluid proteins and capillary permeability for blood proteins, as a part of its mechanism, change from albuminuria to proteinuria into tissues in reference to clinical pictures. 1) In general blood proteinogram in these cases indicates lower albumin-, higher globulinand fibrinogen-emia than in normal subjects, and in detail shows pathognomonic pattern. In floating protein, albumin quantity is decreased but that of total globulin and fibrinogen are increased. (Cf. tables I-15, II-2) 2) Exsudate or transudate has co-relation to blood of same individual in its concentration and composition respectively, and regression line can be drawn. In general the proteinogram of the former shifts to the right as compared with that of the latter, and the higher the total protein concentration of the former is, the nearer stands in composition of the latter, T. P. of the former becomes lower and lower, the composition of the former shifts more and more to the right, so stands Urine proteinogram at its extremity. (Cf. tables I-3, -11, -12, 14). 3) When the case improves, in exsudative pleurisy, blood proteinogram shows lower albumin and higher globulin during the exsudative stadium, and total protein and albumin of blood increase in resorption stadium. Albumin of exsudate varies parallel to that of blood so it increases during resorption, but globulin of exudate decreases in spite of the continuation of high globulin-emia. In cases of severe attacks, high globulinemia and high globulin-concentration of exudate becomes more prominent, therefore A/G is low. In cases of unfavorable prognosis, blood globulin decreases from high to low concentration but in exudate globulin, it increases to the contrary, and exudation acts as internal plasmapheresis. (Cf. tables I-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, -8, -16, II-9 (iii), -10) 4) In these cases, when water is loaded or deprived, the attitude of blood protein is complex in the change of plasma volume. (Cf. tables II-9, -11) So we conclude as follows. The increase of permeability affects proteinogram of blood, and proteinogram of exudate or transudate develops subject to modification in accordance with variability of permeability. Exudation or transudation, however, is not simply a mechanism of the above explanation, but is, we have to acknowledge, a phenomenon in which very complicated and varied living body reactions take part, and in exudation especially, local tissue actions are also responsible.
Fifteen cases of acute glomerulonephritis are reported, in ten of which hyperpotassemia over 5.8mEq/L was transiently noted. In the course of acute nephritis, hyperpotassemia appeared from 5 to 32 days (average: 16 days) after the onset of edema and serum potassium rose to the highest level from 13 to 32 days (average: 21 days) after the onset of the edema. Hyperpotassemia persisted from several to 20 days in nine cases. Serum potassium rose to the highest level from 4 to 21 days after the onset of diuresis, approximately corresponding to the stage of complete loss of excess body weight. In 7 of the 15 cases, the stage of hyperpotassemia coincided with that of increased out put of K in the urine. In other cases the stage of increase in out put of K was preceded or followed by hyperpotassemia. The kidney function as shown by creatinine or urea clearance and P. S. P. test in the recovery stage of acute nephritis, during which hyperpotassemia due to transient elevation of serum K is observed, revealed improvement when compared with that of the early stage of acute nephritis. In the recovery stage with trasient hyperpotassemia, the out put of K in the urine was increased along with diuresis. The author considers that hyperpotassemia is invited when the transference of K from the cells or tissues into vessels exceeds the loss of K from the kidneys.
Twenty cases of acute glomerulonephritis that recovered in two to three months are reported. Hyperpotassemia was noted in the later stage of the disease in eleven cases. Phonocardiographic studies were done repeatedly during the course of the acute glomerulonephritis along with electrocardiographic and electrolyte studies of the serum and clinical observation. The second heart sound commonly begins almost simultaneously with the end of the T wave of E. C. G. within a range of 0.035 second before the end of the T wave and 0.02 second after the end of the T wave. In cases of acute nephritis when serum potassium was elevated, the second heart sound began earlier than 0.035 second before the end of the T wave. No relationship was observed between the onset of the secound heart sound and change of blood pressure or pulse rate. In most of the cases mentioned above the Q-T interval was within normal limits. Hyperpotassemia was induced with oral administration of potassium chloride in five healthy persons and in five persons who had recovered from nephritis, but there was no change in the time relationship of the occurrence of the second heart sound with the end of the T of the E. C. G. The author considers that an important factor causing discrepancy between mechanical and electrical systole may be disturbed metabolism of potassium which appeared temporarily in the course of acute glomerulonephritis.