Using dialysis and paper electrophoresis we have studied on the binding of Hinokitiol with serum protein. On dialysis the optimum pH for the binding of Hinokitiol with serum protein was 7.5, and the optimum temperature was 37°. Hinokitiol added to serum was found to be located in the albumin fraction. But on the paper electrophoresis, Hi showed no binding with albumin. This fact suggests us that the binding of Hinokitiol with albumin is unstable.
Musical murmur is very impressive on auscultation, and is compared with “cooing of a dove”. Its wave recorded on phonocardiogram, shows regular form as sine wave. This murmur is heared rarely and its typical wave is showed in syphilitic aortic regurgitation. Of all 1, 178 cases recorded by our multi-channel phonocardiography, musical murmur and sound were found in 28 cases. In 12 of those 28 cases, the murmur and sound were diastolic and organic origin. Most of organic murmur and sound were seen in aortic regurgitation. Systolic murmur was seen in 16 cases, of which 8 were functional in origin. Frequency of this murmur and sound is 128 c/s in average, intensity ratio is very high, its duration is 0.11 sec. in murmur and 0.068 sec. in sound. Musical murmur or sound seems to be caused by co-vibration of abnormal valve leaflet or other loose tissue in blood flow. In functional musical murmur, there is no clinical significance. In organic musical murmur, when heart failure continues for extended time, the prognosis is worse and the prognosis of organic musical sound is also worse.
We once injected ACTH (manufactured by Organon Co.) intravenously for the purpose of Thorn's test and met with serious shock symptomes and performed observations of various kinds, together with pathologic research about both experimental shock caused by ACTH and its prevention using guinea pigs. The results are as follows. 1) We succeeded in raising anaphylaxy shock experimentally using ACTH, and found characteristic changes of anaphylaxy histologically. 2) The degree of shock symptomes raised by ACTH of Organon Co. was much larger than that of Armour Co. in histologic changes, the former was more remarkable than the latter. 3) Changes were found histologically in central nervous cells. 4) Shock were prevented by chlorpromazine, but considerable changes were recognized immediately after the shock histologically. 5) About the prevention of shock using meprobamate, we are now in researching.
1. The changes in cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism were measured by N20 method after the administration of various vasodilator drugs. 2. A decrease in CBF and an increase in CVR were observed by the administration of caffein, theophylline ethylendiamine and oxyethyl-theophylline. No changes were observed in both CBF and CVR by diethyl-amino-ethyl-theophylline and Parmanil. 3. ATP caused no effect on CBF, but a slight fall of CVR. CMRO2 increased significantly by intravenous injection of ATP together with 40% glucose solution. A decrease in CBF and an increase in CVR were observed by Lacarnol, but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant changes were seen in CBF and CVR after the intravenous administration of Kallikrein. 4. Priscol and nicotinid acie produced no changes in CBF, CVR and CMRO2. An insignificant increase in CBF and CMRO2 was seen by the administration of Vasculat, acetylcholine and amyl-nitrite. Papaverine hydrochloride is the only agent among several vasodilators used at present by which a certain increase in CBF occurs.
Recently, as the genesis of hepatic coma, the blood ammonia concentration and its “up-take” in the brain, have been subjects of considerable debate. Using the Conway's microdiffusion method, the arterial blood ammonia concentrations (ANH3), the cerebral venous blood ammonia concentrations (CVNH3), and the cerebral arterio-venous blood ammonia differences (CA-VNH3) were measured respectively in 15 normal subjects, 34 cases of liver diseases, 36 cases of psychoneurological disorders, 15 cases of hypertension, 4 cases of diabetes mellitus, and 3 cases of Graves' disease. Additionally, the cerebral hemodynamics were studied in 15 patients with liver disease. 1) In the normal subjects, ANH3 was 0.20±0.28μg/cc, and CA-VNH3 was -0.01±0.09μg/cc. No significant difference between ANH3 and CVNH3 was recognized. 2) In 6 patients suffering from liver tumor, ANH3 was significantly increased, and in 10 patients with liver cirrhosis, increase of ANH3 and CA-VNH3 were significant. In 15 patients with hepatitis and 2 patients in congested liver, increase of ANH3 and CA-VNH3 were not distinct. 3) In 8 liver cirrhosis, decreased CBF, increased MABP, elevated CVR, and depressed CMRO2 were observed. In 2 cases of hepatic precoma, CBF was slightly decreased, while CVR and CMRO2 were slightly increased. In 2 patients with hepatic coma remarkable decrease of CBF, elevation of CVR and exceeding depression of CMRO2 were observed. There was a significant negative correlation between ANH3 and CMRO2. 4) In 3 cases of hypnotic coma and 15 of shizophrenics, no change in blood ammonia concentration were observed. But in 2 cases of 3 apoplectic coma, ANH3 and CA-VNH3 were elevated. 5) In the patients with insulin coma, blood ammonia level was not significantly changed. After the electric shock therapy was given, ANH3 and CA-VNH3 were significantly increased. At the same time, remarkable metabolic acidosis was observed. 6) In liver disease and after electric shock therapy was given, a significant correlation between ANH3 and CA-VNH3 was noted. The above mentioned facts lead to the conclusion that, in the hyperammoniemia and to be sure in the liver disease, “up-take” of the ammonia in the brain might usually observed.
In diabetic patients (41 adults), the effect of ATP injection on the carbohydrate metabolism was compared with insulin action. The results were summarized as follows. 1) By administration of ATP, blood sugar levels in diabetic patients were usually reduced, but these levels in normal subjects were unchanged by ATP administration. 2) In many cases, alimentary hyperglycemia in diabetic patients was controlled by administration of ATP, and hypoglycemic effect of insulin was raised when ATP was injected with insulin. 3) Serum inorganic phosphorus were reduced by administration of ATP and the reducing-ratio of phosphorus by intravenous injection of glucose was intensified by administration of ATP. 4) Blood pyruvic acid levels were raised by insulin injection. On the contrary, blood pyrubic acid levels were reduced by ATP injection, and the elevation of blood pyruvic acid levels by intravenous injection of glucose was also controlled by ATP injection. 5) Blood lactic acid levels were reduced by ATP injection and the elevation of lactic acid levels by intravenous injection of glucose was controlled by ATP.
In diabetic patients, the effect of ATP injection on the lipid metabolism was compared with insulin action. The effect of administrating both ATP and Vitamin B1 in diabetic patients, and the effect of administrating ATP alone in hepatic patients were also studied. The results were summarized as follows. 1) Fatty acid and total cholesterol in blood plasma of diabetic patients were relatively increased in many cases, however these showed no correlation to fasting blood sugar levels. 2) Fatty acid and total cholesterol tended to decrease and the proportion of cholesterol ester tended to increase by administration of ATP similarly as were observed by insulin injection. 3) The blood levels of pyruvic acid, of fatty acid and of total cholesterol, and the proportion of cholesterol ester showed no remarkable changes by injection of Vitamin B1 alone. However by injecting Vitamin Bi with ATP, pyruvic acid, fatty acid and total cholesterol were decreased, and the proportion of cholesterol ester tended to increase. 4) When ATP was injected in hepatic patients, blood levels of pyruvic acid, of fatty acid and of total cholesterol, and the proportion of cholesterol ester showed no remarkable changes.
The intervention of factors originating from emotion is not infrequently encountered in the various clinical symptoms in the field of internal medicine. Using healthy male high school students as subjects, the vital reaction phase caused by qualitative difference of emotion was observed. Hypnosis was used as the method of inducing experimental emotion. Suggestions causing a pleasant feeling or ill-feeling were given, and hypnosis was induced as deep as to leave amnesia after awakening. Emotion was divided into a pleasant and ill-feeling. Although the serum chemocorticoid value decreased by a pleasant feeling suggestion, the value did not show a remarkable change when given an ill-feeling suggestion. Adrenaline-like substance in urine did not change under a pleasant feeling suggestion and increased under an ill-feeling suggestion. However, the noradrenaline-like substance did not demonstrate a remarkable change under both conditions. Wenger's autonomic score changed towards parasympathetic predominance under a pleasant feeling suggestion, while under an ill-feeling suggestion it changed towards sympathetic predominance. Ester B2 in blood, which is a co-ferment of dehydrogenase decreased when given an ill-feeling suggestion and did not show a marked change under a pleasant feeling suggestion. Tachycardia was found under an ill-feeling suggestion. With the E. E. G. it was found that the amplitude of the α wave somewhat increased when given a pleasant feeling suggestion, while the a wave was suppressed under an ill-feeling suggestion. Hematologically, the blood tended to be come dilute under a pleasant feeling suggestion, and the leukocyte count tended to increase 4 hours after given a suggestion. From the above results it may be clearly stated that the qualitative change of emotion induces a remarkable difference in the vital reactive phase.
It is known that Toxocara canis does not parasitize in the adult dog but in minor. As to this point, some immunological studies are performed by many authors. In this report, differences depending on the age of dogs in histological changes around the larbored in the liver or lung, and histological findings in the lung of the parasitized adult dog after the operation of anastomosis between portal vein and inferior vena cava, are described. About ten thousand eggs of Toxocara canis per kilogram of body weight are given by catheter into the stomach of dogs which are 7 and 15 days old, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months old and over one year old, and above mentioned operated dog, respectively. On the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th day after giving the eggs, the liver and lung were studied histologically at autopsy. In cases of the dog which were 7 or 15 days old, general symptom were almost normal after giving the eggs, that is, eosinophilic leucocyte did not increase, and visceral migration rate of the larva was prompt. On the 5th day, round cell infiltration around the larva was found in the liver and lung, but on the 10th day, this was almost entirely repaired. In cases of the dogs which were 1_??_3 months old, marked general responses appeared, eosinophilic leucocyte count increased moderately, the visceral migration rate was lessened and the growth of larva was retarded. In the liver and lung, the reactions were found to be localized, the round cell infiltration around the larva changed into the proliferation of fibrocytes or reticulocytes on the 10th day after the infection, and into a perfect tubercle on the 30th day after. In cases of the dogs which were over 6 months old, the general reactions were slight, a marked eosinophilia was found, the visceral migration rate was so slow that the majority of larvae remained in the liver even on the 10th day. The reaction in the liver and lung was a localized and productive one at the initial stage, and complete tubercles were found until the 20th day. In case of the adult dog which was parasitized after making the anastomosis between portal vein and inferior vena cava, a comparatively strong exudative change was found around the larva in the lung, and a nearly complete tubercle was formed on the 35th day after the infection. In conclusion, the defence power of hepatic and pulmonary tissues against the larva of Toxocara canis is thought to be established almost completely in 6 months of age. The fact that adult dogs are scarcely parasitized by Toxocara canis is due to the strong defence power of their liver tissue and that of the lung tissue solely is not sufficient.