The change in alkaline and acid phosphatase activities of serum and urine after injection of ACTH or cortisone to rabbits were studied. The rabbits weighing 2.5 to 3kg were used. After blood and urine samples were taken to determine alkaline and acid phosphatase activites in normal condition, ACTH (10mg) or cortisone (50mg) were injected intramuscularly 4 hours later, samples were taken and the phosphatase activities influenced by these hormones were estimated. The determination of phosphatase activity was performed after the Shirai's modification of Kay's method. The results obtained are as follows. 1. Both alkaline and acid phosphatase activities of sera were markedly decreased by ACTH or cortisone injection. 2. Change in alkaline and acid phosphatase activity of urine was apt to increase, and this tendency was more evident by ACTH injection than by cortisone.
The observation of the blood cells by means of phase contrast microscopy has recently been very common. For the purpose of making the phase contrast more effective and continuing the vital observation as long as possible, we observed the bone marrow, in the same medium with our simple culture method, with a compression so that each cell could be arranged as one layer. The phase contrast microscopes were made by Nippon Kogaku K. K. and Olympus Kogaku K. K. The myeloblasts have cell bodies with well-defined cytoplasmic borders, without any specific granule, and their vesicular mitochondria don't form any distinct shape. Their nuclear membranes are highly refractile, and their nucleoli are moderately refractile, being clearly observed. Promyelocytes have specific granules with high refractivity. Their spherical mitochondria are different-sized and scattered in the cytoplasm. Their nuclear membranes are highly refractile with clearly visible nucleoli. In the myelocytes, highly refractile specific granules and a little greater spherieal mitochondria are observed. Their nuclear membranes are highly refractile, with rough and highly refractile chromatin network. In the monoblasts, the cytoplasm is broader than other blasts and has a little indistinctly defined irregular border, and vesicular mitochondria in it, without any specific granules. The nuclear membranes are thinner and less refractile with delicate chromatin network and clearly visible greater nucleoli of moderate refractivity. Promonocytes have much broader cytoplasm and few moderately refractile specific granules. Their mitochondria are fine and spherical or a little elongated, surrounding the nucleus, whose membrane is thinner and less refractile with different sized nucleoli of higher refractivity. Lymphoblasts are smaller than other blasts with narrower cytoplasm, in which spherical mitochondria are clearly visible and specific granules are observed. Their nucleoli are a little highly refractile. From these characteristics above-mentioned, immature blood cells can easily be differentiated, thus the vital observations benefit not only the diagnosis of leukemia, but also the research of fine structures of the cells.
In the past, 3 reports on the clinical and experimental studies regarding the effect of artificial pneumoperitoneum on intestinal absorption were made and for this report, a patho-histological study of the gastrointestinal tract was undertaken. The purpose of this study was not only to explain the conditions governing absorption by the gastroin-testinal tract during artificial pneumoperitoneum, but because this author felt that it was a problem clinically requiring elucidation. For the experiment, 24 healthy, white, adult rabbits were selected and using 4 types of gas, viz., oxygen, carbon dioxide, air and nitrogen, normotensive and hypertensive pneumoperitoneum groups were established. After continuation of this method for 6 months (the hypertensive group with air was observed after 2.5 _??_ 5 months, the hyper-tensive group with nitrogen was observed after 2 months), the rabbits were autopsied and histological specimens were made of 9 parts, namely, the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and rectum. The results for each of the series showed that similar findings were hypertrophy of the serous membrane, edema of the mucous membrane and circulatory disturbance and in the oxygen series hyperemia and congestion were observed to be mild in the normotensive group, but extremely severe in the hypertensive group. In the carbon dioxide series this tendency proved to be milder in comparison to the oxygen series. In the series using air, hyperemia, especially congestion was confirmed along the entire gastrointestinal tract and the degree of this finding was noted to be greater in the hypertensive group as compared to the normotensive group. Furthermore this phenomenon was noted to be more marked than that of the oxygen series. In the nitrogen series, almost no hyperemia or congestion was noted as in the above 3 series, but in addition, anemia and atrophy and degeneration of the mucous membrane was confirmed. This tendency proved to be greater in the hypertensive group rather than the normotensive group. As for hypertrophy of the glands, the degree was noted to be greater in the order of oxygen, carbon dioxide and air and in each series, it was higher with the normotensive group as compared to the hypertensive group. However, almost no glandular hypertrophy was noted in the nitrogen series.
The author has studied the correlativity of the size of the erythrocytes and the nucleated red cells, by measuring the mean area both the erythrocytes and the nucleated red cells of the patients with several kinds of anemia by means of planimetry. The results were summarized as follows: 1) Mean value of the erythrocyte area of twenty healthy adults was (45.36±1.16)μ2. 2) The size of the erythrocytes was correlated to that of considerably matured erythroblasts on seven healthy adults, five cases with hypochromic anemia and a case with the same disease who had been received the iron therapy, and seven cases with schistsomiasis japonica. 3) On four cases of panmyelopathia with gradual course, the size of the erythrocytes was correlated to the size of the comparatively matured erythroblasts. No correl-ation was recognized between the size of the erythrocytes and the erythroblasts on four cases who were suffering from chronic leukemia, but the coefficient of correlation was relatively large. 4) The studies, carried out on a patient with pernicious anemia during the treatment with vitamin B12, revealed that the size of the erythrocytes was correlated. well to that of the nucleated red cells, especially to the size of the considerably matured ones. 5) The size of the erythrocytes was interrelated well to that of the nucleated red cells, to deliberate on all subjects en bloc. 6) No correlation was noticed between the size of the erythrocytes and the erythroblasts of the three cases of acute leukemias and two panmyelopathias with rapid course, but on such cases most of the circulating erythrocytes have no direct connection with the erythroblasts in the bone marrow in all probability. From these observations, the author gained an impression that, in general, the size of the erythrocytes is mutually related with the size of the considerably matured nucleated red cells.
20 cases of hepatic cirrhosis were admitted to our clinic in the recent 7.5 years (Apr. 1949-Sep. 1956). The present report includes the clinical statistics upon them. Typical Laënnec's cirrhosis was seen in 14 cases, alcohlic hypertrophic cirrhosis in 3 cases and each one case of cholangitic and syphilitic cirrhosis with added one case of hepato-lenticular degeneration. There were 19 males and only one female. The patients 40-60 aged were as many as 80 per cent. 3 cases had the anamnesis of previous icterus or hepatitis, 7 cases were heavy drinker. Initial symptoms were full feeling of the abdomen in 11 cases, icterus in 5 and general malaise in 3 cases. Until hospitalization, 30-50 days were passed in 6 cases after they had first perceived of the subjective symptoms, 180-300 days in 5 cases, 90-150 days in 4, 15-20 days in 2, 2 years in 1 and extraordinarily long term of 27 years in one cases of hepatolenticular degeneration. As a chief complaint when admission, abdominal full feeling was seen in 14 cases, general malaise in 2, icterus in 2 and each one case of epigastric distress and palpitation. Of physical examination, icterus was seen in 16 cases but generally not so eminent except 2 cases of severe icterus, vascular spider was seen in 11 cases, red palm in 2, edema in 11 and venous dilation of the abdominal wall was seen in 15 cases with 1 case of Caput medusae. Ascites was present in 17 cases but not detecteble in 3 cases of alcohlic cirrhosis. The liver was palpable 1 _??_ 3 finger-breadths in 5 cases of Laënec's cirrhosis, 2 _??_ 5 fingers in 3 cases of alcohlic cirrhosis and 3 fingers in one cases of cholangitic cirrhosis; all had a relatively sharp edge with nodular and firm surface. The spleen was palpated about 1 _??_ 2 finger breadths in 4 cases. Bilirubinuria was found in 8 cases, urobilinogen in the urine was elevated in 16 cases. Serum bilirubin revealed the direct prompt Hijmans van den Bergh reaction in 6 cases, its biphasic slow reaction in 3 cases, slow reaction in 3 cases; Meulengracht 70 _??_ 75 in 2 cases, 22 _??_ 36 in 5, 10 _??_ 19 in 9 and 6 _??_ 8.5 in 3 cases. Serum Takata reaction was positive in 17 of 19 cases tested and Bromsulfalein retention in 8 of 9. By the roentogenic examination, oesophogeal varices was seen in 4 cases. Serum Wassermann reaction was positive in 3 cases. 11 cases were dead during hospital day and when discharged, 2 cases were unchanged, 4 cases somwhat improved 3 cases showed a remarkable cure. Among the survived patient afterthere, 3 cases were dead, one case unchanged, one case healthy and 2 cases are now still under treatment.
A case of blood transfusion reactions due to anti-E (rh'') antibody is reported. The patient was a 41-years old married woman, nullipara, and was admitted to the hospital because of chronic anemia due to blood loss (myoma uteri cum hypermenorrhea). Her blood type was A, M, Q, CDe/cde (R1/r), and that of her husband was A, N, q, CDe/cde. After two blood transfusions, 100 ml each, with A, …E, … blood types, the patient deve-loped high fever and hemoglobinuria when she was transfused with A, …E, … blood, but not with A, …e… blood. Direct and indirect Coomb's test was positive after transfusion reaction and the presence of anti-E antibody was confirmed both by us and by Dr. Levine of the Ortho Research Foundation of the U.S.A..