The present study is concerned with the histopathological findings of the liver and the spleen of rabbits, which were used for the previous investigation of the influence of pituitary and adrenal hormones on the function of RES. The results are as follows. 1. The weight of the spleen increased in the animals administered with DOCA and ACTH, but decreased in those administered with cortisone. 2. The histological changes of the spleen of the animals treated with DOCA and cortisone showed a clear difference. ACTH induced almost the same changes as those induced by DOCA. 3. The weight of the liver on the contrary to the spleen decreased by DOCA and ACTH and increased by cortisone. 4. The changes of histological findings induced by DOCA and cortisone were also clearly different. DOCA induced the shrinking of liver cells and the expansion of hepatic sinusoids. On the other hand, the swelling and brightening of liver cells and the closing of hepatic sinusoids were seen in the animals treated with cortisone. The administration of ACTH causes the same changes as those by DOCA. 5. There is a close relation between the histological changes of the liver and the sleen and the changes of function of RES to take off the intravenously injected chicken blood cells. 6. The mechanism of the hormonal regulation of RES was discussed on the basis of these histological findings.
Water and electrolyte metabolism was studied in 25 cases with diabetes insipidus, and the following results were obtained: (1) Daily urinary volume in most of the cases (88%) did not exceed eight liters. (2) In the dilution and concentration test, their dilution capacity was not impaired, however, the urinary output per unit of hour was rather uniform, which was indicative of primary polyuria. On the contrary, there were variable degrees of severe impairment of their concentrating capacity. (3) Renal blood flow (RBF), renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and filtration fraction (FF) were not significantly different from those of normal subjects, whereas tubular reabsorption rate (TRR) was materially reduced (10 cases). (4) There was somewhat increased excretion rate of PSP (5 cases). (5) Serum antidiuretic substance (ADS) was at the lower range of that of normal in 6 out of 7 cases. There was also no daily or diurnal variation of ADS, and no decrease was observed following the water load by mouth. (6) By intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution, there was a slight decrease in urinary output in one of 4 cases, whereas there was a slight or moderate increase in urinary output in the rest of the cases without elevation of urinary and plasma chloride concentration ratio. (7) By intravenous administration of 0.8 to 2.0mg of nicotine, there was a slight decrease in urinary output in one of 3 cases, whereas no decrease in the rest of the cases. (8) There was no demonstrable change in serum electrolyte concentration (11 cases); there was, however, a marked increase in K/Ca as a result of increased serum potassium concentration following posterior pituitary transplantation. (9) Daily urinary output significantly decreased after posterior pituiatry transplantation, which was accompanied by increase in serum ADS, abolition of urinary dilution capacity and prolongation of time required for disappearance of the elevation produced by intradermally injected salt solution by method of McClure and Aldrich (2 cases). A slight decrease in RPF with increase in GFR, resulting in increase of FF, and elevation of TRR were observed following the transplantation (1 case).
Recently, a great deal of attention has been paied to the fact that various residual symptoms has been observed in many cases as a sequel of infectious hepatitis, and in some cases without such clinical symptoms, abnormalities in routine liver function tests have been demonstrated to persist long after disappearance of jaundice. On the other hand, the possibility of transition of chronic hepatitis to liver cirrhosis has been discussed by many investigators. Consequently, importance is stressed in clarifying the pathological features of chronic hepatitis and its relation to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of this disease. But hitherto, there have been many discrepancies concerning the definition of chronic hepatitis. Therefore, with special attention to various liver function, investigation was carried out on the histological features of biopsy specimens obtained with Turkel's trephine needle on 112 cases with chronic hepatitis. Diagnosis was made on basis of clinical and laboratory findings. Analysis and classification of the pathological changes were made according to criteria set by the author in regards to cytological findings. The most common changes characteristic of chronic hepatitis were found to be persistent interstitial inflammation. But the severity of the pathological condition may not be definitely diagnosed merely on evidence of the portal cellularity observed on such minute material obtained by means of needle biopsy, due to the fact that these changes do not occur eqally in all portal canals. However, emphasis should be made on the changes in hepatic cells. Especially, in cases of chronic inactive hepatitis and those of post-hepatitis neurosis where no consistent pathological changes have been demonstrated, abnormalities such as swelling, as celled “Tache cláire” and acidophilic shrinkage of parenchymal cells, enlargement of nuclei, and increase in the ratio of the diameter of nucleoli to that of nuclei were noted. Scarring of portal canals was frequently seen in cases with antecedant history of hepatitis, but this was also demonstrated in sine ictero cases without apparent history of hepatitis. Suspicious evidence of the transition of chronic hepatitis to liver cirrhosis could also be demonstrated in serial studies on several cases. Remarkable protoplasmic changes similar to Dubin Johnson's syndrome were also recognized in three cases. In speculation to the results obtained in this investigation, the value of liver biopsy in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis should be emphasized to a great extent.
Factors taking part in blood coagulation in platelet extracts produced from oxalated human plasma, and effects of several drugs on the number of platelets and no the function of the platelet extracts were studied. And the comparison of the resistance of platelet against distilled water between patients with hemophilia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and normal subjects was performed. The followings were the conclusion arrived. (1) Platelet extract possesses the thromboplastin activity, labile factorlike activity, the accelerating activity of the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and the activity of plasma thromboplastin activation, and all the above activities except the activation of plasma thromboplastin are destroyed by heating at 60°C for 20 minutes. (2) The thromboplastin activity of normal subjects is equivalent to 320 to 5120 times dilution of rabbit brain thromboplastin. With ITP it is reduced, and by blood transfusion or splenectomy it will regain normal level. The thromboplastin activity of platelet extracts with hemophilia is of similar with normal. There is no difference with other diseases. (3) The thromboplastin activity is reduced in the platelet extracts stored in an ice-box at 0°C. (4) Variation of the thromboplastin activity of platelet extracts is independent of the number of platelets. (5) Labile factor-like activity of platelet extracts of normal individuals is equivalent to 40 times dilution of labile factor in plasma. Labile factor-like activities of platelet extracts with ITP and aplastic anemia appear to be less than normal. (6) ACTH and cortisone increase the number of platelets. Their effects are conspicuous in thrombocytopenia with splenomegaly, and an increase of the number of platelets enhances the thromboplastin activity of platelet extract. (7) As to the resistance of platelet against distilled water, the one of hemophilia is stronger than of normal. In a case of ITP, it is weaker than the normal subject.