Free and constituent amino acids in every fraction of normal human blood, separated as purely and intactly as possible, in accordance with the method previously reported by author, was detected semi-quantitatively by two-dimensional paper chromatography over and over again. The results of which are outlined as follows: 1) The most outstanding fact is that free taurine exists in great quantity in the fraction of platelets as compared with other fractions. This taurine seems to exist only in free state. 2) The spot of asparagine in hydrolysate is clearly noticeable only in the fraction of platelets but hardly any at all in every fraction in free state. 3) In the hydrolysate, “under-alanine”, histidine, proline, arginine, threonine, tyrosine and phenylalanine are either slightly observed in the platelets fraction, or not observed at all, whereas they are remarkably observed in other fractions, particularly in white cells fraction. 4) Generally speaking, free amino acids tend to concentrate on blood cells fractions rather than plasma, particularly on platelets and white cells fractions. On the other hand, the constituent amino acids spots increase quite noticeably on both variety and intensity than that in free amino acids spots, without concentration on the blood cells fractions. But in anyway no remarkable difference in patterns is found between the fractions. 5) Essential amino acids, in free state, are all thin and what are found in each fraction are spots of valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine and phenylalanine, but all of essential amino acids are observed in the hydrolysates. 6) S-compounds like taurine, cystine, cysteic acid, tetramethylcystine?, glutathione, etc. concentrate on blood cells fractions in free state, particularly, on platelets and white cells fractions but hardly any are observed as a constituent. 7) Glycine is only just found, in free state, in fractions of platelets and white cells, but as a constituent a quantity of it is observed in all fractions. 8) In general, the intensity of carbonic amino acids spots are much greater than that of basic amino acids spots throughout all samples. 9) Several unidentified substances are found present in various quantity in some fractions.
The application of the capillary ultramicroelectrode method to single cardiac fibers in situ was devised. The mean value of 10 selected data of the tortoise ventricular fibers was 66mV (54-86mV) in the resting potential, 76mV (60-100mV) in the action potential, 10mV (1-36mV) in the overshoot. The duration of the action potential varied from 0.6 to 1.4 seconds. The action potential of the auricular fibers is narrow in its shape. The plateau of the repolarization is lost to some extent and declines more rapidly. The mean value of 10 selected data was 56mV (50-63mV) in the resting potential, 65mV (55-90mV) in the action potential, 9mV (2-30mV) in the overshoot. Its duration varied from 0.4 to 0.7 seconds. No significant difference could be found between the data of the left and right atrium. The curves of the resting and action potential obtained could be clearly differentiated from those by artefact such as by mechanical movement of heart muscle contractions. As for their magnitude, however, the influence by possible injury of cell membranes due to insertion of the microelectrodes could not be excluded definitely. Apart from the absolute value of their magnitude thus obtained, there is possibility at least to utilize timing of the curves of the action potential as a new indicatory method of the electrical activity of the heart.
The author studied the changes in serum complement titers in nephritis and in other renal diseases; also the relation of these changes in complement titers to the clinical symptoms. The results are as follows: 1. In the early stages of acute nephritis, the serum complement titers were markedly lowered but soon returned to normal value, but in those cases in which the serum complement titers showed low values for over five weeks, they usually showed a tendency to become chronic. In a fatal case the valuses were always markedly decreased. On the other hand, those cases which returned to normal rapidly, the clinical changes and symptoms also showed rapid and marked improvement. 2. In chronic nephritis and nephrotic syndrome, the serum complement titers were within normal range. However, cases in which the symptoms were actively progressiv, the complement titers were abnormally low. The continuation of markedly abnormally low values usually suggests a grave prognosis. 3. In renal arteriosclerosis, renal tuberculosis, pyelitis, nephrolithiasis, and in toxemia of pregnancy, the serum complement titers were of normal values. 4. The lowering or decrease of complement titers in renal lesions is the result of antigen-antibody reaction and is closely related to clinical changes and symptoms. However, in chronic renal lesions and in toxemia of pregnancy the role of complement-binding antigen-antibody reaction is not as important.
Making researches in the relation of amino-aciduria and creatinuria by Hepato-cerebral Syndrome, authors have recognized amino-aciduria is also present in Morbus Basedowii, Myasthenia gravis, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and some liver diseases, in which the creatinuria is found. There is no parallel correlation between amino-aciduria and creatinuria but in the diseases which creatinuria is proved, the presence of amino-aciduria is also presumed.