Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi
Online ISSN : 1883-2083
Print ISSN : 0021-5384
ISSN-L : 0021-5384
Volume 47 , Issue 6
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 551-561
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    Download PDF (697K)
  • Komei Ishikawa, Kiichiro Tanemoto, Yuzuru Fujiwara, Takeshi Ando, Mino ...
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 562-570
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    In order to know which is more dominant factor for the elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure, anoxia or hypercapnia, hemodynamic studies were performed on 14 cases of pulmonary emphysema and 17 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, special attentions being paid on the correlation between the pressure and resistance in the pulmonary circuit with those determinants including blood gases, pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary blood volume.
    1) The pulmonary hypertension in pulmonary emphysema is the result of either anoxemia or hypercapnemia.
    2) A highly significant correlation was found between the pulmonary vascular resistance and degree of hypercapnemia, but not with anoxemia in patients of pulmonary emphysema. These results are in fair accordance with our observations on animals breathed low O2 or high CO2, or both together. Such findings suggest that hypercapnia may be more dominant than anoxia in the genesis of pulmonary hypertension in patients with pulmonary emphysema.
    3) The genesis of pulmonary hypertension in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis may chiefly be based upon the pathological change of pulmonary blood vessels viz. the pressure elevation in pulmonary capillary areas.
    4) There seems to be a decreasing tendency of the pulmonary blood volume, resulting probably from pathlogical changes of pulmonary vessels or pulmonary arterial constriction in cases of chronic pulmonary disease, though this requires further investigation.
    Download PDF (652K)
    Naoji Umetani
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 571-576
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    With a view to find a mechanism of a characteristic lowering of polarographic filtrate wave (Pfw) of 20-minute aspirate after insulin injection when compared to that of fasting gastric juice, which is called by the name of “Polarographic cancer pattern” of gastric juice, patients were divided into 2 groups, i. e., the cancerous group and healthy acidic controls, and fasting 20-minute and 40-minute aspirates drawn from respective groups were fractionated into four fractions (from F5 to F8) by the author's modification of Glass & Boud's method.
    On each of the fractions thus obtained, polarographic behaviour was investigated.
    The Pfws in both control and cancerous specimens were the highest in F5 (acetone-soluble fraction), and showed perpendicular figures similar to that of native gastric juice.
    In addition, in the cancerous specimen, a lowing of Pfw in F5 was obtained in the 20-minute aspirate.
    From these facts, it may be declared that F5 is a fraction having the characteristic of “Polarographic cancer pattern”.
    In the control specimens, typical polarographic double waves were noticed in F8 (mucoprotein fraction according to Glass), but little polarographic activities were observed both in F6 and in F7 (mucoproteose fraction according to Glass).
    On the contrary in the cancerous specimens, Pfws were noticed in F6 and F7, while they were negligible in F8.
    In summary of Part I and Part II, it is concluded that the several interfering factors, e. g., contaminations by saliva, blood, and bile have no influence on the “Polarographic cancer pattern” per se.
    In the cancerous specimen, it was observed that polarographic activity existed in F7 but not in F8, which was a reverse result to that obtained with the control specimen.
    Among the fractionated samples, F5 seems to play an important rôle in the above cancer pattern.
    Download PDF (397K)
  • Yasuyuki Sasaki
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 577-598
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    Serum hyaluronidase inhibitor activity (HDI) was determined by turbidimetric method in this experiment.
    1) The existence of HDI in normal human subjects was recognized, and there is no difference in HDI value between man and woman.
    2) HDI increased in both liver and kidney disease. HDI value has a certain interdependence with liver function in liver disease, and with proteinuria, urine volume, hematuria, blood pressure, plasma protein electrophoretic pattern, and edema etc. in kidney disease. That is, HDI value has a relationship with the severity of disease clearly.
    3) In the rabbits with experimentally injured kidney HDI increased day after day, and the increase of HDI kept pace with the severity of the disease.
    4) HDI increased by the administration of both cortisone and ACTH, but do not increase or decrease by DOCA, increased by adrenalin. Moreover, in nephrotic syndrome accompanied with the clear increase of HDI, effective cases in ACTH, Prednisolone treatment had the normalization of HDI value. Therefore, it is supposed that HDI value is regulated by pituitary-adrenocortical system.
    5) In whole body X-ray irradiated rats, HDI value increased at 48 hrs after irradiation.
    6) Sulfhydryl reagents (ferricyan, PCMB, IAc) inhibited the hyaluronidase activity in vitro, recovered by addition of L-cysteine into the system. Moreover, normal serum and nephrotic serum inhibited the hyaluronidase activity, recovered by addition of L-cysteine, According to this fact, a close relationship between HD, HDI and SH-radical was suggested.
    Download PDF (1250K)
    Iwao Yamauchi
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 599-620
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    The mechanism of tubular reabsorption rate of protein was functionally and morphologically studied and the following conclusions were obtained.
    (1) It is considered that the reabsorbed protein in the proximal tubules are decomposed to polypeptides and amino-acids. The tubular reabsorbed protein calculated from arterio-venous α-amino-N difference by means of renal vein catheterization are average 33.6mg/min. in 5 normals, 22.2mg/min. in 4 acute nephritis, 7.3mg/min. in 7 chronic nephritis and 81.9mg/min. in the early stage of a nephrosis.
    (2) The longer reduce of RPF produces more decrease in reabsorbed protein in the proximal tubules but the short term diminution of RPF in acute nephritis causes no marked decrease in reabsorbed protein.
    In the early stage of nephrosis which shows no decrease in RPF, the increase in reabsorbed protein is accompanied with abnormal elevation of protein concentration in the glomerular filtrate.
    (3) In the dog with proteinuria induced by the experimental injection of HgCl2, hemoglobin clearance is measured and it is evident that there is maximum amount of protein reabsorbtion in the tubules.
    (4) Electron microscopic study on the tubular reabsorption of protein following the intravenous injection of hemoglobin indicates that the reabsorption of protein would be correlated with athrocytotic activity of protein utilization in apical cell zone, endoplasmic reticulum and palade granula.
    Download PDF (3105K)
  • Yasaburo Oike, Haruo Kushibiki, Atsuhiro Kurokawa, Yoshiko Sakamoto, Y ...
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 621-625
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    We found that the erythrocytes of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were agglutinated by the serum immune against tuberculosis. This hemagglutination reaction is concerned with the erythrocytes of tuberculous patients, and the Middlebrook-Dubos reaction with the serum of tuberculous patients.
    The immune serum against tuberculosis was prepared from a rabbit which was inoculated with virulent human tubercle bacilli. Before the use of the immune serum its heterohemagglutinin was absorbed by the erythrocytes of healthy human beings of blood group AB. A multiple dilution of the absorbed serum was carried out by 0.15 mol phosphate buffer solution.
    The suspension of the erythrocytes to be examined was dropped into each of the diluents mentioned above.
    After a 3 hour incubation at 37°C and then about a 12 hour standing at 20°C, the hemagglutination was read through an agglutinoscope.
    The hemagglutination titer was lowest in 27 cases of tuberculin-negative people who had never been vaccinated with BCG, and relatively low in 66 tuberculin-negative people having previously been vaccinated with BCG, and highest in 140 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
    It was concluded as follows:
    1) There is something having to do with the immunity against tuberculosis in the erythrocytes of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
    2) If our hemagglutination reaction can be considered as an antigenantibody reaction concerning tuberculosis, it necessarily follows that both antigen and antibody of tuberculosis exist simultaneously in the blood of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.
    Download PDF (338K)
  • Yasunori Sugamata
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 626-636
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    The advantages and disadvantages of the direct and indirect methods of counting blood platelets are subject to discussion, but factor of simplicity and long term preservation bring to the foreground the use of Fonio's method. However, failure attending this method in obtaining uniform distribution of the blood platelets and the erythrocytes in the blood smears may be pointed out. Therefore, as a modification of the smear technic and the character of the diluent used, a cover glass method of obtaining more uniform distribution of blood platelets and erythrocytes was conceived. As compared with Fonio's method, the number of blood platelets counted by the new method is definitely larger, and the normal value is found to be 520, 000 per cmm, a value believed to approach more closely the actual count.
    The characteristics of the new method are as follows:
    1) The viscosity of the diluent is rendered high as to give a uniform distribution of the erythrocytes and the blood platelets.
    2) The staining of the blood platelets is improved through altering the pH of the diluent to an alkaline character.
    3) Counting can be made immediately without fixation or staining.
    4) This technic is simple and the rate of destruction and agglutination of the blood platelets is low, thus giving more accurate values.
    5) The count is more stable as compared with Fonio's method.
    6) The blood platelets and the reticulocytes may be counted at the same time.
    The foregoing are the advantageous features of the new method, but a disadvantage is that fresh blood samples must be used, for which preservation must not exceed 24 hours, and special care in this respect must be taken in obtaining and counting of blood samples.
    Download PDF (845K)
  • Kunizo Kataoka
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 637-644
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    From the following experimental results, it was suggested strongly that two systems other than the pancreas, the pituitaryadrenal system and autonomic nervous system, are also important in the pathogenesis of production and prevention of alloxan diabetes.
    1) 40mg/kg of alloxan was intravenously injected into rats of Wistar strain, and the development of alloxan diabetes was observed in 77%, 62 out of 80 rats.
    2) The pancreas in the rats that developed alloxan diabetes showed morphological changes such as reduction of the islets of Langerhans and destruction of β-cells. Biochemically, a decrease of glutathion content in the pancreas was observed.
    3) Alloxan diabetic rats showed a marked decrease of ascorbic acid content in the adrenal gland and a decrease in the number of circulating eosinophils, suggesting hyperfunction of the adrenal gland. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system was inplicated from a decrease of cholinesterase activity in plasma.
    4) In rats treated by 5mg/kg of intramuscular injection of chlorpromazine given 30 minutes prior to intravenous injection of 40mg/kg of alloxan, the development of alloxan diabetes was suppressed to 31%, 36 out of 117 rats, at 14°-16°C.
    5) In the cases in which the development of alloxan diabetes was prevented by chlorpromazine, the pathological changes in the pancreas was less marked and glutathion content in the pancreas were nearly normal.
    6) The premedicatian of chlorpromazine suppressed the decrease of ascorbic acid content in the adrenal gland and the decrease in the number of circulating eosinophils of alloxan treated rats. At the same time chlorpromazine showed inhibitory effect on the decline of plasma cholinesterase activity.
    7) Simultaneous intramuscular injection of 5 units of ACTH together with 5mg/kg of chlorpromazine could not prevent the development of diabetes caused by intravenous injection of 40mg/kg of alloxan given 30 minutes thereafter.
    Download PDF (667K)
    Akimasa Yoshioka
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 645-666
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    It is not yet clear whether the fever with inflammation is induced by the bacterial pyrogen itself, or by the endogenous pyrogenic substances which are secondarily yielded from tissue or cells injured by the micro-organism. And non-infectious fever in various conditions such as hemolysis, infarction, bleeding, malignant neoplasma and non-infectious inflammation, may be induced by some endogenous pyrogenic substances released from injured cells or tissues.
    As Bennett and Beeson indicated, it is possible that bacterial contamination disturbs the results of the studies on endogenous pyrogenic substances. I have studied systematically on this endogenous fever, avoiding very carefully bacterial contamination by aseptic procedures.
    The results are summerized as follows;
    1) Menkin's pyrexin fraction extracted from the exudates of aseptic pleurisy in dogs caused by turpentine oil, failed to elevate temperature of rabbits except one sample. However, there was more pyrogenic activity in euglobulin and pseudoglobulin fractions extracted from the same exudates.
    2) About a half of samples of desoxyribonucleo-protein, desoxyribonucleic acid, protein parts of this nucleoprotein, and those treated by trypsin or streptodornase, extracted from rabbit organs (liver, spleen, kidney, heart muscles and lymphatic nodes) and from the exudate of experimental aseptic pleurisy in dog, increased body temperature of rabbits.
    3) The majority of samples of mucoprotein (Winzler) extracted from the sera or exudates of the dogs with experimental pleurisy increased body temperature of rabbits.
    4) It is possible that the protein or polypeptide, especially combined with nucleic acid or polysaccharides, is liberated from the inflammatory tissue or cells and causes endogenous fever in the inflammation.
    Download PDF (1462K)
  • Komei Tasaki
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 667-681
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    Phonocardiographic studies were made on fifty patients with ventricular septal defect by means of multichannel phonocardiography.
    The results obtained were as follows.
    1) The intensity of the apical first heart sound was not increased. The pulmonary second heart sound increased in cases with Eisenmenger's complex, but decreased in cases with tetralogy of Fallot. The splitting of the first and second heart sound was observed in few cases. The diastolic murmur at the apical area was observed in patients with elevated systolic pressure in the right ventricle.
    2) The intensity ratio of the systolic murmur in ventricular septal defect had wide range of distribution, and it is useful for diagnosis if it is high, but not so much when it is low. Configuration of the systolic murmur was in large majority plateau shape with a peak and it is followed by diamond shape. The pattern in tetralogy of Fallot and Eisenmenger's complex was diamond shape in all cases.
    3) Relationship to some extent was observed between clinical severity, pulmonary artery pressure, shunt flow, right ventricle pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and intensity of the systolic murmur, but the intensity of the systolic murmur decreased in severe cases. Continuity of the systolic murmur was holosystolic in severe cases, but it was not holosystolic in most of slight cases.
    4) The time interval between the onset of QRS of the E.C.G and the onset of the systolic murmur (Q-Mm time) was average 0.094 second in cases with ventricular septal defect, average 0.097 second in cases with tetralogy of Fallot and average 0.09 second in cases with Eisenmenger's complex. Thus it does not exceed 0.10 second, this is a characteristic finding in ventricular septal defect.
    In the valvular events in the first heart sound, a delay was found in both ventricular elements, but especially in the opening of the pulmonary valve. This shows that, in the ventricular septal defects, both ventricles are loaded, but the loading is higher in the right ventricle. Conclusion was derived that the systolic murmur started before the opening of semilunal valves, i.e., during isometric contraction.
    Download PDF (1289K)
    Mitsuo Yamada
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 682-689
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    This study concerns the longitudinal and lateral ballistocardiographic responses of 20 hypertensive patients to parenteral administration, in acute experiments, of 1-hydrazino-phthalazine, pentolinium tartarate, benzylimidazoline and amobarbital sodium.
    Each drug proved capable of producing a striking changes of abnormal ballistocardio-graphic pattern toward normal and of increasing IJ amplitude in certain patients. With respect to qualitative improvement in the ballistocardiogram the order was: 1-hydrazino-phthalazine, pentolinium tartarate, benzylimidazoline and amobarbital sodium (listed in decreasing order). With respect to increasing of IJ amplitude the following was the order: 1-hydrazinophthalazine, pentolinium tartarate, amobarbital sodium and benzylimidazoline. But the ballistocardiographic changes did not always paralleled the hypotensive response of blood pressure. However, benzylimidazoline produced the marked ballistocardiographic response without lowering the blood pressure.
    Download PDF (480K)
  • Toshihiro Okada
    1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 690-700
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    1) The correlation between the cerebral blood flow (CBF), measured by the N2O technique, and arterial chemical factors was studied in 38 normotensive healthy men.
    Studies made during normal respiration showed that an increase in CBF accompanied an increase in either the arterial CO2 content or the CO2 tension (PCO2), while the CBF decreased in proportion to any increase in the pH.
    However, the correlation between CBF and the arterial O2 content or tension (PO2) was not statistically significant.
    The study indicates that there are variations in the CBF in the various states of respiration, these depending chiefly on the PCO2.
    2) Loading tests were performed under various conditions, and the following observations were made; Inhalation of 5% CO2 in healthy men produced respiratory acidosis accompanied by a rise of PCO2, and as a result, CBF increased remarkably. Inhalation of 10% O2 (anoxia) produced a rise in the CBF.
    A drop in the CBF occurred after inhalation of 100% O2. Changes in the CBF occur when PO2 exceeds the normal values.
    3) A comparison of cerebral vascular response among hypertensives, apoplectics with residual hemiplegia, and healthy men showed a similar response in both hypertensives and healthy subjects; but an impaired cerebral vascular response in hemiplegics.
    4) In metabolic alkalosis a rise in the CBF was observed after the intravenous injection of 7% Sod. bicarbonate. However, there was a remarkable drop in CBF in metabolic acidosis after electric shock therapy. Thus, acidosis and alkalosis in respiratory and metabolic states affect the CBF in different fashions. This indicates that the correlation botween the arterial CO2 content and the CBF is positive.
    Download PDF (919K)
  • 1958 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 701-716
    Published: September 10, 1958
    Released: February 22, 2011
    Download PDF (1721K)