The usual leads employed for electrocardiogram and vectorcardiogram have been introduced not for clearcut relationship between the leads and the electromotive forces of the heart, but rather for their clinical easiness or for their so-called unipolarity. Hence the relationship obtained is so complex that there arose many different interpretations about it. Even vectorcardiogram, as Dr. Johnston and Dr. Prof. Maekawa pointed out, is not the true expression of the electromotive vector of the heart but is merely the vectorical representation of the obtained leads. We employed the theory of lead field and lead vector and devised a new method to obtain the curves of the time-course of each of three components perpendicular to each other of the composite electromotive vector in the whole heart. We named it “the vectorical lead”. The method is as following: We lead between the nape and both feet with small electrodes, between the front and the back, and the right and the left of the chest with the large plate electrodes which cover the whole projections of the heart to each direction. The lead-fields between these electrodes are approximately homogeneous and parallel through the whole heart and hence each of the three spacial components are obtained correctly. Comparing the curves by this method with that of the usual leads, we concluded that a VF lead was the head-to-feet component of the electromotive force of the heart, and that the right-angled isosceles triangle schema by Dr. Prof. Maekawa is more proper to the actual conditions than the equilateral triangle schema by Einthoven. The clinical applications of this method will be discussed in the future papers.
A pneumatic cell system is consisted of two different processes of pneumatization; antrum- and cell-formation. Since a cell-formation in the lung is likely to play a main role, antrum can not be seen in the lung, but in the maxillary sinus only a antrum-formation is demonstrated. According to Goto's opinion, a antrum-formation is a primitive process and a cell-formation is, on the contrary, a highly progressed process of the pneumatisation mechanism. Cystic disease of the lung might occur under limitted development of alveolar septa. This phenomenon has been seen frequently in the mastoid cell system, but rarely in the lung, and is of interest to clinicians. It is incorrect to call it cyst or cystic disease, and for this reason authors advocated the name “ANTRUM DUE TO UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF THE LUNG”. A true cyst would occur very rarely in a pneumatic cavity, where a cell-formation is prominent, as mastoid cell or lung, while in antrum of the paranasal sinus it occurs more frequently. The condition which causes bronchiectasis most of the cases, whether it was aquired or congenital, seems to be atelectasis of the lung. Apneumatic condition of the lung result an obstruction of the terminal end of bronchus and consequently it changes the terminal bronchus, pneumatic cannal, into a pneumatic cavity, which is characterized by the gradual development of its size. For this reason, when the end of the terminal bronchus is obstructed, it grows gradually until it forms various shapes, even if the obstruction is caused by an inflammation of the area and not by atelectasis. In twenty cases of bronchiectasis mastoid cells and paranasal sinuses have been studied rentgenologically and an underdeveloped pneumatization in the head bone pneumatic cavities were found in cases in which bronchiectasis is spread to all area of one or both lungs and not localized in one lobe. From this result authors concluded that bronchiectasis of these cases might be caused by limitted pneumatization of alveoles as a manifesta tion of a general constitution.
We studied on digestion and absorption of fat in the pancreas impaired dog with respect to the following points: (a) Determination of fat in feces. (b) Determination of fat in the lymphliquid by means of experimental fistula of thoracic duct. (c) Determination of vitamine A, administered per os, in blood and lymphliquid. Van de Kammer's method B was adapted for the sake of (a) and (b). Spectrophotometer was used for the determination of (c) as indicated in Fujita-Aoyama G. D. H. method. In the consequence of the study of fat in feces, it was elucidated that both digestion and absorption of fat were disturbed and a sign of recovery was not shown in the dog which pancreas was totally resected. When the pancreatic duct was ligated, the absorption of fat was at first impeded gravely, one week thereafter the tendency to the recovery was observed. Remarkable change was not recognized in the dog which two-thrid and eight-tenth of pancreas was respectively resected, as well as in the dog suffered from experimentally induced allergic pancreatitis. As the results of the determination of fat in the lymphliquid, it was ascertained that the absorption of totally pancreatomized dog was quite out of order. When the pancreatic duct was ligated, the absorption of fat was disturbed for the first one week, and thereafter resumed better. By means of the determination of absorbed vitamine A in the lymphliquid and in blood simultaneously, it was observed that most vitamine A was absorbed in the lymphliquid for the normal dog, and its absorption was impeded in the totally pancreatomised dog. Further, in dog with ligated pancreatic duct, the quantity of vitamine A in blood was counted nearly as much as in normal one while in the former the amount of vitamine A in lymphliquid far less than that in the latter.
Nucleic acid metabolism in brain and liver of the mouse infected with Japanese Bencephalitis was investigated using the radioactive P32. The mice intracerebrally inoculated with Japanese B encephalitis virus were intraperitoneally injected with P32 48 hours and 96 hours after the inoculation of virus. A certain portion of brain and liver of the mouse was 12 hours after the injection fractionated according to Schneider's method. The P32 activities in each fraction of the infected group as well as of the not-infected control group were compared with each other. Marked increase of P32 activities in the phosphoprotein and nucleic acids fractions of brain and liver at the acme stage of infection were clearly seen in the infected group. In the liver of the infected mouse the increase in P32 activity has already been recogneized in the incubation period, that is, in so-called visceral phase of this disease.
The author already reported on the disturbance of liver function using rabbit as an experimental animal by the so-called highpressure pneumoperitoneum and also by the normopressure pneumoperitoneum. Can this disturbance of liver function which is seen in rabbit undergoing normopressure pneumoperitoneum, also be proved in human subjects when such pneumoperitoneum be administered? He was fortunate enough to come across a patient with a gall-bladder fistula and also under treatment with pneumoperitoneum for pulmonary tuberculosis. He was able to make a same experiment on this patient as performed on the rabbit. As a result of this experiment, by the normopressure pneumoperitoneum the serum Takata reaction turned positive and there was disturbance in the excretion of Azorubin S into bile, and it was proved that the liver function was more markedly disturbed by the highpressure pneumoperitoneum. When a pneumoperitoneum is to be administered to human subjects, it is an important matter to be remembered that the liver function is disturbed even when the normopr-essure pneumoperitoneum is maintained, i. e., a pneumoperitoneum with a direct pressure under 8-10cm. of water.
The author has already reported on the results obtained from clinical cases concerning the manner of absorption from intestinal tract by the injection of air into abdominal cavity. This time he reported on the absorption from the intestinal tract of normal rabbit by normopressure and highpressure pneumoperitoneum (using air) performed for a short and long period respectively. As a method of experiment, using normal rabbit 0.25% phenolsulfonphthalein solution was administered parenteral (into auricular vein) and peroral, and a rate of total amount excreted into urine was calculated for each route of administration and a percentage of these rate was determined as a percentage of absorption from intestinal tract. Moreover, each experiment was commenced directly after each refilling. The average percentage of absorption obtained from the control group was 70.72%. The transition of the percentage of absorption by the short period normopressure pneumoperitoneum, surve-yed at each procedure from the first to the tenth refilling resumed value equal to that prior to the injection of air. The average percentage of absorption for the long period normopressure pneumoperitoneum group was 68.97%, revealing little difference between the control group. The average percentage of absorption for the temporary highpressure pneumoperitoneum group was 56.90%, showing apparent low value compared with the above mentioned results. The average percentage of absorption for the long period high-pressure pneumoperitoneum group was 56.77%, and this value showed close resemblance to that of the former. Judging from these results, especially from the fact that the hinderance of absorption function was of the same degree for the temporary and long period high-pressure pneumoperitoneum, the author assumed that the absorption function was hindered from the disorder in the portal circulation produced by the excessive elevation of intraab-dominal pressure due to injection of air. (author's excerpt)