農業経済研究
Online ISSN : 2188-1057
Print ISSN : 0387-3234
ISSN-L : 0387-3234
最新号
93巻2号(大会特集号)
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
報告
  • ―顕在化したフードシステムのリスクと将来展望―
    三石 誠司
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 132-145
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    COVID-19の影響はわが国のフードシステムの複数段階に及ぶため,検討には考え方の整理が必要である.本報告では疾病分類および「トリプルR」の考え方を活用し,最初に東日本大震災との比較を実施した.そこで顕在化したフードシステムの脆弱性を指摘した上で,フードシステムの各段階における動向を,過去2回の総務省経済センサスを基に検討した.その結果,COVID-19による変化とみなされているものの多くが,COVID-19以前から生じていた構造変化であり,コロナ・ショックはこれを加速させる可能性が高いことを報告した.

  • ―ポスト・コロナ社会を見据えて―
    西山 未真
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 146-158
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    本稿では,北米と日本の食と農を結ぶ取り組みに注目し,フードシステムの市場依存からの転換にどのような役割が果たせるか,その転換にCOVID-19はどのように影響を与えたかを論点とし,食と農の関係の歴史的な変化傾向と,COVID-19の感染拡大がその傾向にもたらした影響を検討した.COVID-19により,食と農の活動への需要は北米,日本とも増加した.しかし,社会問題へのアプローチとして展開してきた北米での食と農の活動は環境の変化に対応できたが,日本では需要増を取り込めたのは一部にとどまった.非常時に備えて,ローカルフードシステムを強化することによるフードシステムの複線化の必要性が明らかになった.

  • ―不確実性の下だからこその試行錯誤の尊重―
    平井 太郎
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 159-171
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    人口減少により持続可能性が危惧されてきた日本の農村地域では,感染症拡大後,「コロナ移住」の動きも見られるものの依然,将来像が見通せない.これに対し本報告では,ポスト・コロナで求められる3Rのうち,特にリデザインを「動詞としてのリデザイン」と捉え返し,どのような将来像が,当局者や専門家だけでなく当事者にもどう共有されうるかを問う.まず,将来像の転換に当たり,農村地域の活発度が定住人口だけに規定されないことを確認したうえで,関係人口の量的インパクトを押さえる.さらに,関係人口のサーベイでその増大に「場」が不可欠だとされた結果を踏まえ,青森県でのアクション・リサーチから「場」づくりの要点を確認する.

  • 平澤 明彦
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 172-184
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    欧州グリーンディール(EGD)およびその分野別戦略がCAP改革に及ぼすであろう影響を検討した.EGDの大規模な展開はほぼ確実であるが,財源調達や成長の実現などは不確実である.EGDは生物多様性など環境対策の手段としてCAPを重視し,財政面でも依存している.各種数値目標にはCAPと環境規制を組み合わせて対処する.次期CAP改革案はEGDに対応する独自の環境・気候対策を備えているが,その実現には改革案の審議と加盟国の裁量拡大の両面で不確実性がある.今後,温室効果ガス排出削減策などEGDの進展によりCAPはさらなる適応を求められよう.農業部門の負担拡大や政策立案権限浸食と農業予算維持の間で難しい舵取りが必要である.

報告論文
  • 平石 学, 三宅 俊輔, 山田 洋文, 白井 康裕
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 202-207
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    This paper investigates variability of farm income and revenue on upland farms in the Tokachi district. The main results are as follows. First, variability of farm income, revenue and agricultural products sales differs depending on type of farming and farm size. Variability on vegetable farm entities is larger than on single dry field farm entities. The larger the farm size, the larger the variability is on single dry field entities. Second, there is a correlation between the coefficient of variation of agricultural product sales and the coefficient of variation of revenue. But there is also a weak correlation between the coefficient of variation of agricultural product sales and the coefficient of variation of farm income. Third, under stable management, the marginal profit rate is higher and fixed cost is lower than under unstable management.

  • ―先進事例におけるてん菜新技術利用の解析―
    藤田 直聡, 辻 博之, 有岡 敏也
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 208-213
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether farmers are likely to reduce production costs by choosing between new technologies (6-row beet harvester and 6-row beet transplanter for short paper pots) and a conventional one when they replace their harvester and transplanter. As a result, the following became clear. First, when a farm introduces new technology for self-sufficiently, the production cost will always exceed that of the conventional technology. Therefore, a contractor organization is required in order to reduce production costs by choosing new technologies. Second, when the farm continues to cultivate sugar beet in spite of lack of labor, it will be effective to introduce the new technology.

  • 小林 創平, 國光 洋二
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 214-219
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The total factor productivity (TFP) of soybean production was measured from 1987 to 2015 by the Tornqvist index for different production scales in the large-scale farming region Hokkaido and other remaining regions. The TFP increased gradually in both the Hokkaido and other regions, though the former continuously increased grain yield per unit area (YU) while the latter decreased it. The latter region increased the proportion of middle-to-large scale farmers with relatively high TFP and low YU, thereby resulting in the overall TFP increase and YU decrease in Japan. Results suggest that the two regions adopted different strategies to increase TFP.

  • 樋口 直寛, 首藤 久人
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 220-225
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    In this study, a threshold vector error correction model was used to examine the vertical price transmission of the Japanese beef market from September 2001 to December 2017. The main findings are as follows. First, there was asymmetry price transmission in the Japanese beef market. In particular, an error correction model of cattle price revealed the asymmetric price transmission in the period from September 2006 to December 2017. Second, calf prices and cattle prices played a major role in price adjustment. In the period before August 2006, the asymmetry of price adjustment in calf price could be captured. Third, no causality for price transmission was observed during the period before August 2006 including BSE, but there was short run price causality for cattle, calf and dressed carcass prices on cattle price in the second period.

  • 宝音図 , 草処 基, 千年 篤
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 226-231
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The purposes of this study are i) to analyze the determinants of profitability of beef cattle breeding management in Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia and ii) to identify the current managerial problems. The regression analysis based on the data collected by a farm management survey revealed that the farm net revenue was significantly affected by the number of cattle fed, cultivated land area, presence or absence of corn sales, shipping weight of a calf, and shipping rate. It was also found that small-size farmers are more likely to view the external environment as a problem and try to maintain the present management status, while large-size farmers are more likely to consider the lack of internal resources as a problem and try to enhance use of their own resources in order to expand their management.

  • ―大規模養豚法人を対象として―
    前田 佳良子, 納口 るり子, 澤田 守, 青山 浩子, 氏家 清和
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 232-237
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    We conducted a questionnaire and an interview about job satisfaction, which targeted 4 large-scale pig farm corporations in Japan. First, when we compared each corporation, the results showed that the more employees who had career aspirations, the higher the job satisfaction score. Next, when we compared by career aspiration, employees with career aspirations had a higher satisfaction score in every corporation. In addition, when comparing workers with career aspirations to workers who want to work long-term, there was a relation between their results. Considering the analyzed results of each question about job satisfaction, there was a significant difference among corporations. These results indicate that improving human resource management systems while considering the differences among the levels of job satisfaction can not only improve employees’ job satisfaction but also have an effect on the securement of the number of employees who aspire for promotion and on employees’ motivation for long-term service.

  • ―2009-13年度と2014-18年度の動向比較を中心にして―
    小川 真如
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 238-243
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The purpose of this study is to verify the changing process of Full Utilization of Paddy Fields in Japan from literature surveys and statistical analysis. The main results are as follows. First, the policy up to the fiscal year 2018 is divided into the first half and the second half every five years. Second, the first half promoted the maximization of paddy field use, while the second half had the role of rice production adjustment. Thirdly, paddy field maintenance is becoming more serious as paddy fields are being reduced and policy concerns about uncultivated paddy fields are weakening.

  • ―山形県酒田市の事例を中心に―
    吉澤 建人, 小嶋 大造, 安藤 光義
    2021 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 244-249
    発行日: 2021/09/25
    公開日: 2021/12/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Official agricultural statistics in 2019 revealed that the coverage of farmland area of large-scale farms has decreased. Using the case of Sakata, this study clarifies that this agricultural structure change was caused by the dissolution of community-based group farming. The results are as follows. By the incorporation deadline for community-based group farming, about half of such farms were incorporated, and the remaining half were dissolved. Some of the latter were large-scale farms with more than 100 ha, which caused a downsizing in the statistical agricultural structure of Sakata.

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