All the Palaeozoic formations of the Japanese Islands are marine in origin and are grouped into two systems, Kitakami and Titibu. Whereas, the Kitakami system includes Gotlandian and Devonian formations, with the exclusion of the uppermost part of the latter, the Lower, Middle, and Upper Titibu approximately correspond to the Lower Carboniferous, Upper Carboniferous, and Permian respectively, essential divergence being the inclusion of the uppermost Devonian rocks into the Lower Titibu, of the Upper Visean stage into the Middle Titibu, and of the Triticites
zone into the Upper Titibu, as shown in the table at the end of Pt. I.
All of the fusulinid zones, from the Millerella
zone to the Yabeina
zone, are represented in Japan. The faunas of the Carboniferous fusulinid zones are here briefly reviewed. It appears as if each couple of Millerella
and Fusulina zones
, and Triticites
zones intimately combined palaeontologically and stratigraphically, according to the informations now at disposal.
There are coral faunas of three different types; 1, the Akiyosi Fauna (Nagatophyllum-Clisaxophyllum-Taisyakuphyllum
fauna), ranging from the “endothyroid” zone to the Fusulinella
zone; 2, the Onimaru fauna (Dibunophyllum-Kueichouphyllum-Hexaphyllia
fauna) of the Millerella
zone; 3, the Hukuzi fauna (Cystophora-Arachnastraea
fauna) of the Fusulinella
zone. Minato already stressed on the Australian affinity of the brachiopod fauna of the Hikoroiti and Arisu formations of the Lower Titibu, and the South Chinese affinity of the Onimaru and Akiyosi coral faunas (M. Minato). On the other hand, the Hukuzi coral fauna is allied with those of the Penchi series of South Manchuria, Koten series of Korea, and the equivalent formations of the Moscow basin. Hexaphyllia
of the Onimaru coral fauna, and Seccamminopsis
in its association are known from the British Isles and Soviet Russia, and the latter also from Germany. Leptophloeum
from the Nakakura formation of the Lower Titibu closely resembles L. australe
McCoy from the Upper Devonian of Australia
from the former has its relatives in the Upper Devonian of South China and Australia.
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