The Miners' Gild (Knappschaft) in the Ruhr district was set up by Frederick the Great at the end of the eighteenth century. The members of the Gild were given many privileges such as an exemption of military services by the prussian government. At the beginning of the nineteenth century the Ruhr miners lost these privileges, but they got the qualification for membership of the newly-organized miners' Gild, which could give them priority for employment opportunity. In the regulation of the miners' Gild of 1824, the government specified the punishment clauses. It also trained the miners on the basis of the regulation and prohibited the unskilled to join the miners' Gild. At the same time the government controlled the miners' private life and then the miners were under the tutlage of government officials, especially of the local mining inspectors. As the results, the miners' Gild built up a community which isolated the members from other industrial workers. The miners' community was supported financially with the funds of miners' Gild which gave the miners free medical care. In the 1830's and the 1840's, however, the miners' community gradually lost its effectiveness to organize the miners due to the development of the Ruhr coal-mining industry, an increase in the number of labors, especially of the daily hired labors, and the growing influence of the mineowners (Gewerke) over the miners.
Three major questions faced the American Petroleum Industry on the eve of the twentieth century. The first involved the vast new sources of supply of crude oil. After 1900 the Gulf Coast, Mid-Continent, and California oil fields were simultaneously opened up. The second related to the changing composition of consumer demand for petroleum products. The spread of electricity for light was rapidly reducing the demand for kerosene. On the other hand, the new demand for fuel oil and gasoline was sharply expanding. The third was associated with the dissolution of Standard Oil in 1911 by the Supreme Court. As A.D. Chandler, Jr. pointed out, Standard Oil had become a fully integrated enterprise by the early 1890's. In the next two decades challenges to Standard's dominance came from the other integrated enterprises such as the Texas Company, Gulf Oil Corporation organizing after the turn of the century. They had already become large integrated enterprises operating in all basic functions of the oil industry befor 1911. The general incorporation laws of the Texas state did not authorise incorporation for two distinct business purposes. The Texas Company had failed to gain sanction for producing and pipeline activities under one charter, then was organized as a pipeline company. But the Texas Company engaged in integrated operations through control of separetely incorporated producing companies. Within a decade it decided to construct its own refinery, and then moved into marketing. Despite the threat of strictly enforced state incorporation and antitrust laws which might have restricted that relationship, the Texas Company, in a practical sense, was capable of integrated petroleum operations from its inception. In 1917, the state legislature passed the so-called Texas Company Bill, which permitted fully integrated operations.
Founded by Okura Kihachiro in the early Meiji period, the Okura zaibatsu did business with the government and the military during the period, and accumulated wealth through its foreign trade activities. From late Meiji through the Taisho period, it carried out a vigorous policy of diversification. One area into which it moved was mining, it ran coal and metal mining operation both at home and overseas. It also invested in numerous activities in China, beginning with mining and forestry, and also lent funds to political authorities there. As, a result, the zaibatsu saw tremendous expansion in the Taisho period, particularly in its three major fields-trade, construction and mining. But with the recession in the early Showa period and with the chaotic political situation in China, Okura run up substantial losses. Faced with meager profits and a lack of investment capital, the zaibatsu was unable to invest in any new areas, including heavy industry. Growth for Okura was severely restricted and the gap between it and Mitsui and Mitsubishi widened considerably.