The main thrust of this study is to shed light on the management situation at the coastal industrial railway, which performed the function of linking factories of the coastal industrial area with the main trunk line, and also to shed light on its relationship with the companies in the coastal industrial area. This is a case study of the Tsurumi Coastal Industrial Railway Co. that was built in the Keihin Industrial Area after the World War I. What was epoch-making about the coastal industrial area was that it functioned as an ‘industrial port’ which allowed large ships to berth at private wharves. Many companies in the Keihin Industrial Area of the 1920s required overland transport for procurement of materials and resources, and to ship their goods to Tokyo and Yokohama in the hinterlands. Initially, the coastal industrial railway was a plan which petitioned for construction of a branch link from the main trunk line by the government railway. However, in 1924, this changed to a plan where a private railway called the Tsurumi Coastal Industrial Railway would be built after it received investment from land reclamation companies and other companies. The choice of a private railway helped to rapidly open up the Keihin Industrial Area rail system to traffic, but there were more than a few problems that arose from this. In particular, the high fares for straight-through transport with the government railway led to growing dissatisfaction from the recessionary companies along the railway line during the 1930s. Many similar problems faced by the management of the private coastal industrial railway receded into the background for a period from the war boom in 1937. However, the protracted nature and worsening course of the war, particularly with respect to freight transportation, were a crushing burden on the Tsurumi Coastal Industrial Railway and was a factor in it being nationalized in 1943.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristic of securing and the management of manpower by analyzing the housing policy of a government-owned Yahata ironworks. Yahata ironworks has constructed workman's house before operation begins. The reason was because an area cannot supply a workman with a house. After Yujirou Nakamura assumes the position of the third president, the house is explained as part of the welfare facilities. The purpose of Yahata ironworks's establishing the welfare facilities is to prevent the movement of the workman who had actually faced, and to press established. It was expected of the workman to be skilled because the uneasiness of life was canceled by the welfare facilities, and it worked for a long term. Moreover, it was planned for the workman to live according to Yahata ironworks, and to train the loyalty that even the descendant worked at Yahata ironworks. It does to the welfare policy after the model of the enterprise like an acknowledged Krupp ironworks in Germany. Yahata ironworks makes the residential area, encloses necessary manpower to the region that is, and is crowded. And, Yahata ironworks establishes other welfare facilities in the residential area, and straightens the mechanism that the workman's life is wholly managed. Yahata ironworks will do the welfare policy of the workman supporting entirely with a core of the housing policy. Thus, Yahata ironworks chose the road where the welfare policy of a German enterprise was wholly introduced. If so, it will be able to be said that Yahata ironworks had the historical significance of presenting the shape of new Japanese firm starting with the housing policy.
This article aims to explore the business vision of Risaburo Toyoda and examine his management of Toyoda Gyoudan [Toyota Industrial Group(TIG)] with emphasis on his entrepreneurial network. Although, Kiichiro Toyoda is well known as the “founder” of Toyota Motor Corporation, in fact, he was not in a position to make final decisions. His brother-in-law, Risaburo, was the president of Toyota Motor Corporation as well as the CEO of TIG. Therefore, the study of TIG including Toyota Motor Corporation must devote special attention to Risaburo. Nevertheless, he has not been judged rightly, and has often been regarded as a hindrance to Toyota's rise in the automobile business. This article aims to reexamine his positive role and the organizational structure of TIG, regarded as a “local Zaibatsu”. One of the most important facets of Risaburo was why he decided to enter the automobile industry. This article shows that in the 1930s, he had predicted the rise of Japan's heavy industry and the decline of its textile industry, and he managed to convert TIG's basic business from textiles to heavy industries. It is well known that Zaibatsu and Emerging Corporate groups were disorganized during the wartime economy due to diversification of affiliated companies. On the other hand, TIG, which was a late-comer in the corporate group, was still primarily controlled by the Toyoda family. A lack of external capital needed to enter the automobile business along with wartime corporate controls had threatened its management structure, but Risaburo secured cooperative stakeholders and reorganized TIG, making Toyota Kinyu [Toyota Finance Company] a holding company. Consequently, TIG kept the family-controlled management structure. In this process, Risaburo made the most of his entrepreneurial network and exercised leadership as the CEO.