This article is in a series of my projected researches regarding the American-Canadian commercial-business history from the latter half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century. This paper consists of three facets: a general description of the socio-economic development of Baltimore during the latter half of the 18th century; a brief analysis of some commercial-business-historical characteristics of Baltimore's maritime industry and her foreign-coastwise trades; and lastly some considerations of the entrepreneurial activities of Robert Oliver, “the commission merchant-importer-exporter, typically a stay-at-home-merchant” in Baltimore during the eighties. In onther words, this article becomes one of my works based upon economic-business-historical approaches. In making this paper, I had a lot of valuable opportunities to read through some original data in Washington National Archives.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the historical function of the Taylor system in the American arms industry. For this purpose, I treat firstly, what was the main problem of management in the arms industry in the late 19th century, and secondly, what role did the Taylor system have in this sector. The Taylor system of management was first brought into the arms industry at the Watertown Arsenal in 1909, followed by the New Heaven Plant of the Winchester Repeating Arms Co. in 1915. Till the introduction of the Taylor system, the New Heaven Plant adopted the line production method, while at the Watertown Arsenal, layout of the production line was so confused that they did not even bring machinery of the same type into the same section of the shop. Both of these plants, however, were managed by the similar traditional simple line organization. In both cases, such a management organization resulted in the functional disorder of management before the end of the 19th century. The Taylor system, being introduced into the two plants for the purpose of reform, by separating the management function from operation and subdividing it into specialized functions, created the base of the modern line and staff organization in the arms industry.
In this paper I tried to investigate into an aspect of the American management movement up to the 1920s, from a viewpoint of the development of collegiate business education. Accordingly, the rise of business management could be treated so far as it became to be a subject of business education. A concrete study I make first is how management was introduced into the curriculum in the first half of the 1910s. The second point is the fact that the management was not regarded to be the most important subject in business school in the 1920s, in spite of its increasing and diverse advancement in the business world.