The Japanese automobile market in pre-war had been dominated by Japan Ford and Japan GM. So, the aim of automobile industrial policy was to protect the market against foreign companies, to foster domestic manufacturers and finally to control the industry. Specially the army had intended to eliminate the foreign companies after the 1931 Manchurian incident. After the army occupied Manchuria in 1931, heavy-industrialization policy had been executed by Japan there. Aircraft and automobile industries as the war industries had been thought important. Army had intended to protect the automobile market and to foster the automobile industry in Manchuria. The goal of the 1936 Automobile Manufacturing Business Law was to permit the automobile manufacturing business and to eliminate the foreign companies. Furthermore, the law was to protect the automobile market against foreign companies in Manchuria. Substantially it had been prohibited for foreign companies to make inroads into Manchurian market. In fostering the automobile industry in Japan and Manchuria, Manchurian market was very important in these two points : 1. As the market of Japanese automobiles. 2. In fostering the auto business in Manchuria. Therefore in order to foster the automobile industry, the operation of foreign companies in Manchuria had never been permitted.
This study intends to analyze the initiation of mass production technology and its influence on the machine tool industry in Germany at the end of the 19th century. It is still believed, that at the end of the 19th century, mechanical engineering industry in Germany was technologically far behind as compared with the standard of the USA. The “American system of manufacturing” was often used to emphasize the above notion to prejudge the German machine tool industry. However, it is a question to assess whether the development of the German machine tool industry was far behind than that of America. Even in the USA, the sewing machine, one of the typical product of the “American system, ” was made as a hand-made one at the beginning. Sewing machine builders in the USA introduced its mass production upon interchangeable parts in 1870s, after few years of this change, German also began to intoroduce this system. This pattern was also true for industries like bicycle, fire arm and typewriter. In order to make parts for the above machines, it was inevitable to use new kind of machine tools like milling machine or turret lathe. Although these machines were developed by American engineers in the middle of the 19th century, their commercial production commenced even in the USA in the middle of 1860s. After few years later German machine tool builders also started to copy and improve them. In the stage of developing process of the mass production, the machine tool industry played a “convergent” roll not only in the USA but also in Germany. At the beginning of the 20th century, the German machine tool technologies had been developed significantly in order to compete with the American builders in the world market.