Background and aims: Fluorosis affects tooth mineralization. The therapeutic benefit provided by lasers on fluorosed and non fluorosed cementum requires studying and comparing. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the root surface changes following Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser irradiation on periodontally healthy fluorosed versus non-fluorosed teeth by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and methods: A total of 76 periodontally healthy fluorosed (FH) and non-fluorosed (NFH) teeth specimens were included in this study. In one group, the experimental root specimens were irradiated using Er:YAG or with Nd:YAG laser in the other. A SEM evaluation was performed to assess the laser induced ultra structural changes in the root surface followed by statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test. Results: It was observed that both FH and NFH groups were similarly affected by Nd:YAG or Er:YAG laser. However, the former caused more surface changes than the latter on melting of surface (p=0.12 for FH and p=0.08 for NFH), and Er:YAG laser caused more smear layer formation (p=0.51 for FH and p=0.16 for NFH). Conclusion: Results suggest that undesirable morphological changes were observed almost similarly in FH and NFH groups using Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser. Hence further in-vitro studies at lower energy settings followed by clinical trials are required in this aspect.
Objectives: Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in oral bacterial decontamination. Current research aims to evaluate the effect of photodynamic killing of visible blue light in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, curcumin and erythrosine as potential oral photosensitizers on Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal bone loss and Fusobacterium nucleatum associated with soft tissue inflammation. Materials and methods: Standard suspension of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were exposed to Light Emitting Diode (LED) (440-480 nm) in combination with erythrosine (22 μm), curcumin (60 μm) and hydrogen peroxide (0.3 mM) for 5 min. Bacterial samples from each treatment groups (radiation-only group, photosensitizer-only group and blue light-activated photosensitizer group) were subcultured onto the surface of agar plates. Survival of these bacteria was determined by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation. Results: Results for antibacterial assays on P. gingivalis confirmed that curcumin, Hydrogen peroxide and erythrosine alone exerted a moderate bactericidal effect which enhanced noticeably in conjugation with visible light. The survival rate of P. gingivalis reached zero present when the suspension exposed to blue light-activated curcumin and hydrogen peroxide for 2 min. Besides, curcumin exerted a remarkable antibacterial activity against F. nucleatum in comparison with erythrosine and hydrogen peroxide (P=0.00). Furthermore, the bactericidal effect of visible light alone on P. gingivalis as black-pigmented bacteria was significant. Conclusion: Our result suggested that visible blue light in the presence of erythrosine, curcumin and hydrogen peroxide would be consider as a potential approach of PDT to kill the main gramnegative periodontal pathogens. From a clinical standpoint, this regimen could be established as an additional minimally invasive antibacterial treatment of plaque induced periodontal pathologies.
Background and aim: An out-patient surgical procedure in the paediatric age group is a tough task for a surgeon, more so when compounded with mentally challenging conditions like cerebral palsy. Every step involved, either administration of local anaesthesia or handling sharp surgical instruments around the face or achieving haemostasis, can be a challenge, with compromise on patient safety. Neither undue restraint nor general anaesthesia is advisable, considering the magnitude of the procedure. In such cases, a safe, rapid and effective technique that can be comfortably performed under topical anaesthesia without use of sharp instruments or needles would be an ideal option. The purpose of this paper is to highlight one such situation, where an intra-oral soft tissue tumor was safely and effectively ablated using diode laser, under topical anaesthesia in a child with cerebral palsy concurrent with Worster Drought syndrome. Results: Topical anaesthesia provided adequate conditions to ablate the tumor. A bloodless field was achieved, with no need for sutures. The procedure was completed in less than half the time required for a conventional approach. Postoperative follow-up of 3 months showed complete healing with no recurrence. Conclusions: Portable diode lasers are an effective tool for minor oral surgical procedures in paediatric population especially, children who are mentally challenged.