Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) utilizing the less invasive Laser Flow Meter (LFM) can be used to assess the functionality of the system. Flow, velocity, mass (sampling volume), and their relations were estimated by simulation models. Anaesthetized adult mongrel cats (19) were used. A craniectomy was performed to introduce probes and make lesions. Models with cold injuries and saline infusions were used for eliciting abnormal CBF. In the white matter of saline infused animals, a comparison of CBF evaluated by hydrogen clearance method was made. The effects of intravenously infused Evans blue dye on the changes in CBF were evaluated. A linear correlation between flow and speed is presented. The correlation between mass and concentrations of the reflected particles (beads) approximated a Iogarithmic curve. CBF from hydrogen clearance correlated well with LFM. Simultaneous increasing in CBF and velocity in the gray matter surrounding the cold lesion accompanied increases in cerebral blood volume with some time delays, Several cautions concerning measurement with LFM are discussed. LFM is convenient for real-time observation of CBF. Changes in mass in animals in relation to blood volume may be underestimated because of multiple scattering.
During cosmetic surgical procedures, the operative field and surrounding tissue are often subjected to fairly rough handling, and traumatic tissue removal is often necessary. The postoperative condition of many cosmetic procedures often includes extensive oedema and bruising. In the author's clinic, lasers are often used as the surgical tools of choice, for vapourization and incision. These are conventional high-powered systems. There have been reports in the literature of the oedma-reducing and haematomata-absorption properties of low reactive level laser therapy, or LLLT, Accordingly the author has performed a series of studies on the postoperative application of LLLT following a cosmetic surgical procedure. Four hundred patients have been thus treated over the past 4 years. LLLT is administered daily for 10 days from 2 days post-surgery, for 10 min per session, The system used is a combination HeNe/pulsed diode laser (Lasotronic, Switzerland). Although the actual pathways for the action of LLLT are unclear, the results obtained in the author's clinic are such that LLLT for post-procedure biostimulation is now de rigueur for the patient fresh from the cosmetic procedure.
The efficacy of low reactive-level laser therapy (LLLT) for pain attenuation in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) was evaluated in 63 patients (25 males, 38 females with an average age of 69 years) managed at our pain clinic over the past four years. A double blind assessment of LLLT was also performed in 12 PHN patients. The LLLT system is a gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser (830 nm, 60 mW continuous wave). Pain scores (PS) were obtained using a linear analog scale (O to 10) before and after LLLT, The immediate effect after the initial LLLT was very good (PS: 0-3) in 26, and good (PS: 7-4) in 30 patients. The long-term effect at the end of LLLT (the average number of treatments 36 ± 12) resulted in no pain (PS: 0) in 12 patients and slight pain (PS: 1-4) in 46 patients, No complications attributable to LLLT occurred. Although a placebo effect was observed, decreases in pain scores and increases of the body surface temperature by LLLT were significantly greater than those that occurred with the placebo treatment. Our results indicate that LLLT is a useful modality for pain attenuation in PHN patients and because LLLT is a noninvasive, painless and safe method of therapy, it is well acceptable by patients.
The authors have been involved in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in particular chronic poly-arthritis and the associated pain complaints. The biggest problem facing such patients is joint contracture, leading to bony ankylosis. This in turn severely restricts the range of motion (ROM) of the RA-affected joints, thereby seriously restricting the patient's quality of life (QOL). The authors have determined that in these cases, daily rehabilitation practice is necessary to maintain the patient's QOL at a reasonable level. The greatest problem in the rehabilitation practice is the severe pain associated with RA-affected joints, which inhibits restoration of mobility and improved ROM. LLLT or low reactive level laser therapy has been recognized in the literature as having been effective in pain removal and attenuation. The authors accordingly designed a clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of LLLT in RA-related pain (subjective self-assessment) and ROM improvement (objective documented data). From July 1988 to June 1990, 170 patients with a total of 411 affected joints were treated using a GaAlAs diode laser system (830 nm, 60 mW C/W). Patients mean age was 61 years, with a ratio of males : females of 1:5.25 (16%:84%). Effectiveness was graded under three categories: excellent (remarkable improvement), good (clearly apparent improvement), and unchanged (little or no improvement), For pain attenuation, scores were: excellent-59.6% ; good-30,4% ; unchanged-10% , For ROM improvement the scores were: excellent-12.6% ; good-43.7% ; unchanged-43.7%. This gave a total effective rating for pain attenuation of 90%, and for ROM improvement of 56.3%.
Studies indicate that both helium-neon irradiation and infrared irradiation can reduce inflammation in tissue and promote healing with reduced scar tissue formation. Statistical evaluations were performed on horses using a 904 nm infrared laser on bowed tendons, check ligaments, plantar desmitis and pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia. In all diseases the post therapy race time showed a majority equaling or exceeding the post-injury race time.
A study is presented involving 500 cases of infant diarrhoea treated by needleless acupuncture using two HeNe laser ‘light needles’, compared with 120 cases treated with conventional needle acupuncture. Patients' ages ranged from 15 days to 10 years old. The tw.o delivery probes were connected to a HeNe laser system by a 1 metre flexible fibreoptic light guide, and produced a continuous wave 632.8 nm beam of visible red light, with an incident power density of approximately 14 mW/cm2, Three to five sets of acupoints were irradiated in pairs, 5 min per dose, once per day for 4 days. The main acupoints used were Tianshu (S25); Zusanli (S36); Shangjuxu (S37); Neiguan (P6); and Pishu (B20). The ‘light needles’ method gave an overall effective rate of 95.6% , compared with 97.5% for the smaller needle acupuncture group. There was therefore no significant difference between the two groups, The low incident energy dose from the HeNe laser penetrates tissue noninvasively, and is selectively absorbed by the target chromophores in the target tissue, Laser acupuncture can activate mononuclear phagocytic systems, enhance enzyme activity, and exert influence on cellular membrane permeability: through these effects it is suggested that laser acupuncture can noninvasively clear up and control inflammation, control and stop vomiting and diarrhoea, and eliminate pain. Accordingly, the author suggests that the noninvasive and less-threatening needleless laser acupuncture is an ideal and equally effective alternative to conventional acupuncture, without needing any injection or drug therapy, especially when dealing with the neonate and paediatric patient with diarrhoea.