Aims: This study investigated the effectiveness of laser-assisted in-office bleaching and home-bleaching in sound and demineralized enamel. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 120 freshly-extracted bovine incisors. Half of the specimens were stored in a demineralizing solution to induce white spot lesions. Following exposure to a tea solution for 7.5 days, the specimens were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 30 according to the type of enamel and the bleaching procedure employed. Groups 1 and 2 consisted of demineralized teeth subjected to in-office bleaching and home bleaching, whereas in groups 3 and 4, sound teeth were subjected to in-office and home bleaching, respectively. A diode laser (810 nm, 2 W, continuous wave, four times for 15 seconds each) was employed for assisting the in-office process. The color of the specimens was measured before (T1) and after (T2) staining and during (T3) and after (T4) the bleaching procedures using a spectrophotometer. The color change (ΔE) between different treatments stages was compared among the groups. Results: There were significant differences in the color change between T2 and T3 (ΔE T2-T3) and T2 and T4 (ΔE T2-T4) stages among the study groups (p<0.05). Pairwise comparison by Duncan test revealed that both ΔET2-T3 and ΔET2-T4 were significantly greater in demineralized teeth submitted to laser-assisted in-office bleaching (group 1) as compared to the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Laser-assisted in-office bleaching could provide faster and greater whitening effect than home bleaching on stained demineralized enamel, but both procedures produced comparable results on sound teeth.
Background and aims:A 405 nm diode laser is indicated for composite materials polymerizing, thanks to the recent evolution in their compositions, absorbing in blue part of the spectrum. The purpose of this research was to evaluate its performance on two different kinds of composite resins. Materials and methods: Two different composites were polymerized with a traditional halogen lamp, a LED device and a 405 nm diode laser. The depth of the cure, the volumetric shrinkage, and the degree of the conversion (DC%) of the double bond during the curing process were measured. One-way ANOVA test, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Dunn comparison tests were used for statistic analysis. Results: Regarding the depth of polymerization, the laser had the worst performance on one composite while on the other, no significant difference with the other devices was observed. The volumetric shrinkage showed that laser produced the lowest change in both of the composites. The DC% measure confirmed these findings. Conclusions: Based on the results of this preliminary study, it is not possible to recommend the 405 nm diode laser for the polymerization of dental composites.
Background: Aggressive, or even minimally aggressive, aesthetic interventions are almost inevitably followed by such events as discomfort, erythema, edema and hematoma formation which could lengthen patient downtime and represent a major problem to the surgeon. Recently, low level light therapy with light-emitting diodes (LED-LLLT) at 830 nm has attracted attention in wound healing indications for its anti-inflammatory effects and control of erythema, edema and bruising. Rationale: The wavelength of 830 nm offers deep penetration into living biological tissue, including bone. A new-generation of 830 nm LEDs, based on those developed in the NASA Space Medicine Laboratory, has enabled the construction of planar array-based LED-LLLT systems with clinically useful irradiances. Irradiation with 830 nm energy has been shown in vitro and in vivo to increase the action potential of epidermal and dermal cells significantly. The response of the inflammatory stage cells is enhanced both in terms of function and trophic factor release, and fibroblasts demonstrate superior collagenesis and elastinogenesis. Conclusions: A growing body of clinical evidence is showing that applying 830 nm LED-LLLT as soon as possible post-procedure, both invasive and noninvasive, successfully hastens the resolution of sequelae associated with patient downtime in addition to significantly speeding up fran wound healing. This article reviews that evidence, and attempts to show that 830 nm LED-LLLT delivers swift resolution of postoperative sequelae, minimizes downtime and enhances patient satisfaction
A microbe free root canal space before obturation leads to higher success rate and conventional chemo-mechanical debridement might not achieve this goal completely. First trials of laser in dentistry started from surgical intervention on caries and bones of oral cavity and extended to prepare cavities and even shaping root canals. Afterward lasers were implicated soon into direct debridement of root canal space. Anyhow failure of laser to remove debris totally from root canal space is demonstrated recently, additionally it might lead to damages to surrounding tissues or inorganic material of root canal if be used without precaution. Nowadays the theory of light assisted protocols became another start point for laser in endodontics. Laser has been introduced as an adjuvant to conventional debridement of root canals. We used Medline search engine to collect scientific publications to edit this review article in purpose of revealing the evolution of laser position from an ultimate cleaning methodology to an adjuvant to conventional root canal disinfection protocols.
An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.