The Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory
Online ISSN : 2432-8944
Print ISSN : 0073-0912
Volume 64
Showing 1-33 articles out of 33 articles from the selected issue
  • P. W. RICHARDS
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 1-4
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      Tropical forests provide a range of microhabitats for bryophytes with different microclimates and substrata. Each microhabitat has a distinct synusia of bryophytes characterised by their life-forms and strategies. All the substrata available for bryophytes in tropical forests are impermanent and efficient short-distance dispersal is therefore important. The need for more information about the reproductive strategies of tropical forest bryophytes is emphasized.

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  • BARBARA M. THIERS
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 5-14
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The Jungermanniales are most diverse and abundant in the tropical rainforest habitat. The most important parameters influencing their growth in this environment are relative humidity, rainfall, light, and temperature. Stems, leaves and reproductive organs have structural modifications with possible adaptive significance in this habitat. Adaptations involving the stem are growth habit (projecting, prostrate, and rheophytic) and stem anatomy (epidermal thickenings, stem reduction and stem flattening). Modifications to leaf structure include development of simple and complex saccate leaf lobules and differentiation of elongate, thin-walled cells within the leaf. Adaptive features relating to the dispersal and establishment of diaspores include the secretion of sticky mucilage in conjuction with gemma production, the development of discoid gemmae, precociously germinating spores, prolongation of the protonemal stage and development of a neotenic life cycle.

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  • R. E. LONGTON
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 15-28
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      Three life-history strategies predominate among hot-desert bryophytes: 1. Perennial stayers are represented by acrocarpous mosses with long-lived, desiccation-tolerant gametophytes, small spores, long setae and other features promoting dispersal; 2. Annual shuttle species include ephemeral mosses and liverworts that practice drought evasion, developing rapidly after rain and producing large spores, often in immersed capsules; 3. Perennial shuttle species, mainly marchantioid hepatics, combine desiccation tolerant gametophytes with large spores. Colonists are prominent in places in Spanish mediterranean regions, where Funaria hygrometrica, a fugitive, is locally abundant in burnt woodland. Fugitives are generally prominent for only 1-2 years at a given site. They and colonists are believed to migrate between sites as small, easily-dispersed spores, or in some colonists as asexual propagules. It is stressed that current concepts regarding both phyletic and functional aspects of bryophyte life-history strategies are highly speculative, but a comparison of spore output and reproductive effort in Funaria hygrometrica and a perennial stayer confirmed that the former has many attributes to be anticipated in species acting as fugatives.

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  • WILLIAM R. BUCK
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 29-36
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The Hookeriales are divided into five families, the Hookeriaceae, Daltoniaceae, Adelotheciaceae, Leucomiaceae and Callicostaceae. The families are delimited primarily on gametophytic characters, including several little-used ones, because the order is considered fairly uniform in peristome features except for a repeatable reduction of cross-striolate to papillose exostome teeth. The order and each family are described and generic inclusions listed. Discussion is presented for controversal genera. A dendrogram is provided to illustrate tentative relationships between the families.

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  • TIMO KOPONEN
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 37-46
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      A cladistic analysis of the genus Mnium Hedw. and related taxa suggests that Mnium s. str. is more closely related to the genera of the Rhizogoniaceae than to most of the other genera of the traditional Mniaceae. In the new classification the Mniaceae contains the genera Mnium, Leucolepis Lindb., Trachycystis Lindb., Pyrrhobryum Mitt., Cryptopodium Brid., Hymenodontopsis Hertz. and Leptotheca Schwaegr. and the Rhizogoniaceae contains the genera Rhizogonium Brid., Hymenodon Hook. f. & Wils., Mesochaete Lindb. and Goniobryum Lindb. The new family, Plagiomniaceae, comprizing the earlier Mniaceous genera Plagiomnium T. Kop., Orthomnion Wils. and Pseudobryum (Kindb.) T. Kop. is described. The placement of the earlier Mniaceous genera Cinclidium Sw., Cyrtomnium Holmen and Rhizomnium T. Kop. remains uncertain, and they are tentatively placed in the family Cinclidiaceae Kindb. Most of the genera of the Mniaceae in its new limitation occur in South America-Australasia and possibly are Gondwanalandic. Mnium s. str. is Laurasian and Leucolepis is a Pacific Coast endemic to North America. Only one pantropical autoicous species of Pyrrhobryum is present in tropical Africa. Rhizogoniaceae s.str. is Gondwanalandic, and the Cinclidiaceae and Plagiomniaceae are Laurasian.

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  • H. BISCHLER
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 47-57
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The order Marchantiales (Hepaticae) contains morphologically well delimited families and genera of which many are monotypic. Its range is world-wide. Present classifications and phylogenetic derivations are based mainly upon morphological and morphogenetic homologies that are partly questionable. Recent differentiation is presumed only in two large genera that correspond to two morphologically as well as ecologically divergent trends in the order. Many other genera are pioneers of xeric, cold, or disrupted, harsh habitats. Morphology and ecology appear linked. The role of ecological adaptation in evolutionary processes is discussed.

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  • JIŘĺ VÁŇA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 59-66
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The most elaborate available system of the order Jungermanniales is that of Schuster (1984). 40 families are grouped in 15 suborders. In the present paper the problem of delimitation and relationship of the higher categories (families, suborders) as well as the problem of primitive and derivate groups are discussed. A detailed analysis of the suborder Jungermanniineae is provided.

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  • HIROSHI INOUE
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 67-70
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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  • GABRIELA G. HÄSSEL DE MENÉNDEZ
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 71-86
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      Four orders are recognized as a result of a cladistic analysis of the eight extant genera of the Anthocerotophyta: 1. Anthocerotales Limpr. with two families: Anthocerotaceae Dum. emend. Hässel including Anthoceros [Mich.] L. emend. Prosk. and Sphaerosporoceros Hässel gen. n., and the Notothyladaceae (Milde) K. Müll. ex Prosk. emend. Hässel with the subfamilies Phaeocerotoideae Hässel subfam. n. including Phaeoceros Prosk. and the Notothyladoideae Grolle including Notothylas Sull.; 2. Foliocerotales Hässel ord. n. with one family the Foliocerotaceae Hässel fam. n. including Folioceros Bharadw.; 3. Leiosporocerotales Hässel ord. n. with one family the Leiosporocerotaceae Hässel including Leiosporoceros Hässel; and Dendrocerotales Hässel ord. n. with one family the Dendrocerotaceae (Milde) Hässel corr. et emend. including Dendroceros Nees and Megaceros Campb.

      The orders, families, subfamilies and genera are defined and Latin diagnoses are given for the new categories and Sphaerosporoceros Hässel gen. n. SEM photographs of the spores of S. adscendens (Lehm. et Lindenb.) Hässel comb. n. and of S. granulatus (Gott.) Hässel comb. n. are provided. Additionally two figures illustrate the diagnostic characters.

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  • JIRO HASEGAWA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 87-95
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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  • YOSHINORI ASAKAWA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 97-108
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The chemical evolution of mono- and sesquiterpenoids found in liverworts has been discussed on the basis of their biogenetic pathways. The chemical interrelationship between several genera of the Hepaticae has also been shown by the characteristic chemical markers.

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  • R. MUES, H. D. ZINSMEISTER
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 109-141
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The occurrence of several types of phenolic compounds in bryophytes is now clearly established, although there is still a limited knowledge on the chemistry of phenolics in hornworts. Thus chemotaxonomic conclusions are until now only possible from phenolic compounds of mosses and liverworts. The phenolic constituents of bryophytes are divided into two groups: those with one and others with two or more aromatic ring systems. Compounds of the first group have been detected in mosses only a few times; they are more common in liverworts. Their occurrence in liverworts is presented in a table, their chemosystematic relevance is discussed. Compounds of the second group are divided in the following types: bibenzyls, bisbibenzyls, flavonoids and miscellaneous structures. All types except flavonoids and sphagnorubins are known only from liverworts. Their distribution and structures are also shown in several tables. Flavonoids were reported from liverworts and mosses. Their occurrence and distribution in both classes is discussed and presented in various tables. Their chemotaxonomic relevance is shown for several examples. In final conclusions results and problems of chemotaxonomic work on phenolic compounds in bryophytes are summarized.

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  • ANNELIES HOFMAN
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 143-150
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The systematic status of a number of Plagiothecium species is still uncertain, and is difficult to determine with conventional taxonomical methods. In the present study horizontal starch gel electrophoresis is applied in order to investigate the genetic relationships between six taxa of the genus Plagiothecium, sampled in the Netherlands. To enable outgroup comparisons, Herzogiella seligeri also is included in this study. Twelve enzyme systems are studied (MDH, ME, ICD, PGD, SOD, GOT, HK, PGM, ACP, AMY, TPI, GPI), representing twenty presumptive loci. To facilitate the interpretation of the allozyme patterns, counts of chromosome numbers are made from mitotic divisions.

      The electrophoretic data are used to tentatively propose a phylogeny for the taxa under study, and the mean gene diversity within populations is compared between species with different breeding systems.

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  • CHIA-LI WU, SHU-JEN CHANG
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 151-157
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The chemosystematic significance of the following components related to different Taiwanese liverwort species is discussed in the present paper.

    Herbertane-type sesquiterpenes - Mastigophora diclados and M. woodsii

    Neoverrucosanol & Homoverrucosanol - Schistochila acuminata

    Trichocolein & (-)-3α-Hydroxylabda-8(17), 12E, 14, -triene - Trichocolea pluma

    Tridensene & Tridensenone - Bazzania tridens

    Cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol - Plagiochila kahsiana

    Trans-8, 10-dimethyl-1(9)-octalin - Bazzania fauriana and B. angustifolia

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  • S. R. GRADSTEIN, Y. ASAKAWA, R. MUES, R. KLEIN
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 159-168
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      Chemical analysis of representatives of about thirty genera of Lejeuneaceae has shown that the terpenoid and flavonoid content of the Lejeuneaceae is basically comparable to that of other Hepaticae and quite diversified. Among the terpenoids detected some are common throughout the family (elemenenes, germacrenes), others are distributed more restrictedly and are indicative of evolutionary relationships among genera, e.g. borneols (Nipponolejeunea), pinguisanines (Acrolejeunea complex), striatenes (Ptychanthoideae, Omphalanthus complex), calamenanes (Lopholejeunea) and labdanes (Ptychanthus, Tuzibeanthus). Flavonoids are present in smaller amounts than terpenoids and comprise some compounds unique to bryophytes (lutonarin, kaempferol-3-methylether). The genus Omphalanthus stands out by its total inability to biosynthesize flavonoids. At the species level the chemical constitution may vary considerably and in some species evidence for the existence of chemical races was detected.

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  • R. N. CHOPRA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 169-175
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      It is possible to induce apogamous sporophytes and aposporous gametophytes in some bryophytes under cultural conditions. Among the factors which favour apogamy are reduced hydration, low light level, high sugar concentration, chloral hydrate, low concentration of hormones, coconut milk, ‘sporogon factor’, high chromosome number and heritable variations. Apospory is favoured by suitable temperature and light, wounding, removal of apical dominance, sufficient humidity and lack of sugar in the medium. Being rare in nature, these phenomena do not have much significance in the life cycle of bryophytes. However, these have resulted in increased ploidy level in some mosses. These phenomena support the ‘homologous’ theory of the origin of alternation of generations, and have also helped in the understanding of some aspects of differentiation.

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  • HELEN P. RAMSAY
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 177-186
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      Australasia is of great botanical interest because of the intermix of Gondwana, Authochthonous and Laurasian elements in its flora. Relictual rainforests, now known to contain some of the most primitive Angiosperms also represent ancient ecosytems in which some of the cryptogamic flora may well be as significant. The role and importance of biosystematic and cytological studies for improving our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and reproductive biology of mosses at all levels is illustrated with reference to studies at the generic level on Macromitrium, and at the family level in the Sematophyllaceae. These are evolutionarily significant taxa in the Australasian region.

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  • R. LIGRONE, R. GAMBARDELLA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 187-196
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The sporophyte in bryophytes is permanently connected to the gametophyte by a basal organ, the foot, enclosed within the gametophyte vaginula. The adjoining sporophyte and gametophyte tissues form the placenta, that is the seat of active nutrient translocation. In all three major groups of bryophytes, viz. mosses, hepatics and anthocerotes, cells with wall protuberances, referred to as the transfer cells, are found in the placenta. In advanced moss taxa, transfer cells occur on both sporophytic and gametophytic side of the placenta, whereas in more primitive taxa such as Andreaea, Tetraphis and Polytrichales they are restricted to the sporophyte. Placental transfer cells are reported to be lacking in Sphagnum. In hepatics a single layer of sporophytic transfer cells and several layers of gametophytic transfer cells are found. In the anthocerotes Phaeoceros and Anthoceros transfer cells are formed only on the gametophytic side of the placenta and the sporophyte forms haustorial cells that penetrate the gametophyte tissue. Placental transfer cells differentiate very early in the moss Funaria hygrometrica, whereas they appear at rather an advanced stage of sporophyte development in the liverwort Targionia hypophylla. It is concluded that the ultrastructure and development of the placental region is a promising line of enquiry into the evolutionary relationships of bryophytes, yet successful comparison is presently hindered by the paucity of available information.

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  • B. CRANDALL-STOTLER, J. J. BOZZOLA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 197-218
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The fine structure of the potentially mitotic, undifferentiated cells of the apical meristems and regenerants of Takakia lepidozioides are compared, and the effects of kinetin and colchicine on regenerant cell substructure is investigated. Interphasic, meristematic cells in the apices of both leafy shoots and stolons are each characterized by a prominent central nucleus that occupies 40-50% of the cross-sectional area of the cell and one (early interphase) or two (later interphase) large, starch-filled plastids. The nucleus possesses a single large nucleolus, with a well defined outer granular zone, and several scattered regions of heterochromatin. In both young leaf cells and epidermal cells of the stem and stolon the single plastid of early interphase lies between the nucleus and the inner cell wall. The plastid divides by constriction at its midpoint; the two daughter plastids then migrate to lateral positions on either side of the interphase nucleus. The nucleus remains basically spherical although it may be distended slightly towards the dividing plastid. In stolon epidermal cells only, large, dense bodies lie between the nucleus and outer cell wall. Algal-like plasmodesmata are well-developed in both apices. Meristematically active cells of stem regenerants, in contrast, are each characterized by a central to subbasal nucleus, numerous, small, peripheral plastids, prominent vacuoles and osmiophilic lipid bodies that line all inner walls. Addition of kinetin to the regenerant culture medium modifies plastid/nuclear associations and causes membrane proliferation and vacuolation of lipid bodies. Post-treatment of kinetin-grown regenerants with colchicine results in disorientation of organelles, increase in nuclear dimensions and simplification of the plastid thylakoid system. That Takakia is an archaic archegoniate, only remotely related to other bryophytes, is supported by these findings.

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  • KAREN S. RENZAGLIA, JEFFREY G. DUCKETT
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 219-236
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      Analysis of the major developmental processes involved in spermatogenesis in bryophytes reveals that the streamlined form of the mature spermatozoids of mosses, hepatics and hornworts is a remarkable example or convergent or parallel evolution, probably consequent on the extreme selective pressures operating on motile cells in the terrestrial environment. Further considerations indicate Lycopodium and Selaginella and members of the Characeae exhibit similar examples of the evolution of comparable, highly specialized male gamete architecture. Recognition that the spermatozoids of mosses, hepatics and liverworts are analogous in structure strengthens the idea that bryophytes are polyphyletic. The morphology of mature spermatozoids, previously considered of major importance in charting interrelationships between major groups of chlolophyll a- and b-containing plants, is meaningless without an understanding of developmental processes.

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  • R. M. SCHUSTER
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 237-269
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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  • HIROMI MIYAWAKI
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 271-326
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The Japanese species of the Lecanora subfusca group are revised. As defined by Brodo (1984), species in this group have a crustose thallus, K(+) yellow reaction (containing atranorin), small to large calcium oxalate crystals and trebouxioid phycobionts in the apothecial margin, reddish brown to blackish disks, and colorless simple spores. In Japan, 21 species are recognized, of which four (L. andoi, L. nipponica, L. mikuraenisis and L. gongensiana) are described as new to science, three (L. megalocheila, L. perflexuosa and L. sulcata) previously treated in varietal ranks of other species are recognized at species rank, and five are reduced to synonymy. The Lecanora subfusca group is divided into two subgroups, the L. chlarotera subgroup and the L. allophana subgroup, based on large crystals or dispersed small crystals in the thalline margin.

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  • R. GROLLE, S. R. GRADSTEIN
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 327-334
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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  • RYSZARD OCHYRA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 335-346
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      This paper provides an index to the genera, species and infraspecific taxa of mosses as well as new names and combinations proposed by the Ukrainian bryologist Andrey S. Lazarenko and a bibliography of papers in which these new proposals were presented. All new species and forms are accompanied by information on typification, location of original or type material, and synonymy. Two new combinations, Thamnobryum vorobjovii (Lazar.) Ochyra and Plagiopus oederiana (Sw.) Crum & Anderson var. alpinus (Schwaegr.) Ochyra, are made. In addition, Tortula papillosissima (Copp.) Broth. var. minor Bizot is elevated to subspecies rank within T. virescens (De Not.) De Not. and Weissia krassavinii (Lazar.) Lazar. ex Ochyra is validated here.

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  • KATHLEEN A. KRON
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 347-358
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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  • R. G. E. BAKER
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 359-365
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      A scanning electron microsope study revealed the presence of pits on the inner surface of many cell walls in two Sphagnum species. The pit membranes contained perforations which have been interpreted as plasmodesmatal channels. Further observations suggest that certain pores present in large, dead hyaline cells may be the remains of similar pits which became ruptured at or near the time of cell death.

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  • JAN-PETER FRAHM
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 367-387
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      The subantarctic and temperate southern hemisphere are regarded as the areas of origin of the genus Campylopus Brid. Of the 74 species described from this region, 14 are accepted, four of which show a circum-subantarctic range. A key and distribution maps are given for all species. All infrageneric categories are found in the subantarctic. This indicates that infrageneric differentiation occured in the Mesozoic era (or earlier), before the separation of the Gondwanaland continent. Endemism is rarely found and only at an infraspecific level. Based on the hypothesis of a subantarctic origin for the genus Campylopus, an attempt is made to derive morphological groups of tropical species from subantarctic ancestors and to explain the rich speciation of the genus in the tropics.

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  • MASAMI MIZUTANI
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 389-399
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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  • POONAM MEHTA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 401-410
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      Spores of Microdus, Hymenostylium and Campylopus germinated after 3, 4 and 2 days, respectively. Rhizoidal filament was absent in all the three mosses, and their protonemata differentiated into chloronema and caulonema. In Microdus buds appeared on the caulonema after 28 days and developed into normal gametophores. The protonemata of Hymenostylium and Campylopus remained bud-free even up to 2 months. High light intensity favoured protonemal growth in the investigated mosses. In Microdus high intensity not only shortened the time required for bud initiation but also enhanced their number. Continuous illumination promoted protonemal growth in Microdus, Hymenostylium and Campylopus, and bud number in Microdus. In Hymenostylium and Campylopus temperature of 25℃ was optimum for protonemal growth, whereas 18℃ proved best for growth and bud formation in Microdus. In the three mosses protonemal growth was maximum on media containing 0.8 per cent agar. In Microdus buds were initiated earlier and their number was maximum on media containing 0.8 per cent agar. At high concentrations of agar (2.4 & 3.2%) shoots had vestigial leaves.

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  • SADHANA DHINGRA-BABBAR
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 411-427
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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  • S. TAKAMI, M. YASUNAGA, S. TAKIO, J. KIMURA, S. HINO
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 429-435
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      We established suspension cultures of spherical cells from the hornwort, Anthoceros punctatus L., using modified Murashige and Skoog's medium lacking plant hormone. Each cell contained one large chloroplast like that observed in parental or redifferentiated plants. The cells grew actively in the light and chlorophyll was synthesized. In the dark no cell growth was observed. Ammonium was used as a sole nitrogen source, while nitrate was not. When cells grown in suspension cultures were transferred to a solid inorganic medium, they redifferentiated into whole plants.

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  • YOICHI YUZAWA
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 437-449
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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      Study of type specimens proves the following species to be synonymous with other species: Frullania paraensis Steph. = F. exilis Tayl.; F. patentiloba Steph. and F. bicornuta Steph. = F. stipatiloba Steph.; F. galapagona Aongstr., F. obcordata (Lehm. et Lindenb.) Lehm. et Lindenb., F. pabstiana Steph. and F. miradorensis Steph. = F. caulisequa (Nees) Nees.

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  • TONG CAO, CHIEN GAO
    1988 Volume 64 Pages 451-458
    Published: June 14, 1988
    Released: August 04, 2021
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