Based on 37 out of the 40 hepatic families and 399 species, the hepatic flora of Western Melanesia (West Irian, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands) is divided into 11 phytogeographic groups, which are the same ones used earlier to survey the phytogeography of the mosses. Infraspecific taxa are excluded. The taxonomic concepts are adopted from previously published literature dealing with the hepatic flora of Western Melanesia, and from a few as yet unpublished manuscripts. Most of the phytogeographic groups are exemplified by maps showing the total distributions of typical representatives. The largest of these groups in the hepatic flora are: New Guinean or Western Melanesian endemics (37.8% of the flora); Asian-Oceanian species (18.2%); and Malesian endemics (16.2%). Of the main biogeographic regions of the world, the affinities of the Western Melanesian hepatic flora are strongest to SE Asia (As 2 - As 4) and Oceania. The affinities to Australia are fairly weak. Within Malesia, the affinities are strongest to Java, Borneo and Sumatra. In Asia 2 and 3, the affinities are closest to Indochina, Sri Lanka and Japan, and in Oceania to New Caledonia, Fiji and Samoa.
Barbella nitens (Hook. f. & Wils.) Nog. is transferred back to Papillaria with which it shares more characters. P. fulva (Mitt.) Jaeg. is confirmed as a synonym of this species. A revised key is provided for the 7 accepted Australian Papillaria species.
From ten species of Pleuroziaceae (genera Pleurozia and Eopleurozia) the flavonoid patterns have been determined. The results are compared with the morphological classification of the family. Eopleurozia is chemically distinguished from Pleurozia in the diversity of its flavonoid pattern. Within Eopleurozia two sections are recognized: E. sect. Eopleurozia (E. paradoxa) and E. sect. Ampliatae sect. nov. (E. simplicissima). Both for chemical and morphological reasons Eopleurozia giganteoides is returned to Pleurozia, which is considered to be phylogenetically more advanced than Eopleurozia, because of its more simplified flavonoid pattern. Based on the presence of “differential” flavonoids the species of Pleurozia fall into three groups, which partly correspond with the sections recognized by Jack (1886). The 3′-O-glucoside of lucenin-2, detected in P. acinosa, P. caledonica and P. articulata, is a new natural product. All other flavonoids detected in the Pleuroziaceae are rather widespread in liverworts.
Twenty three taxa of Malesian Sematophyllaceae are proposed as new synonyms: Acanthocladium brevifolium Dix., Acroporium serrulatum Dix., Aptychella subdelicata Broth., A. yunnanensis Broth., Clastobryella capillifolia Dix., Clastobryopsis delicata Fleisch., Clastobryum carinatum Dix., C. caudiforme Dix., C. glomerato-propaguliferum Toyama, C. papillosum Williams, C. pulchro-alare Dix., C. serratum Dix., C. sinense Dix., C. subplanulum Broth. & Dix., Pterogoniella fornicata Card., Rhaphidostichum aquaticum Dix., R. leeuwenii Dix. & Fleisch., Sclerohypnum riparium Dix., Sematophyllum decipiens Dix., Trichosteleum superserrulatum Dix., Trismegistia subintegrifolia Broth., T. perundulata Dix., and T. valetonii Fleisch. & Dix. Hampeohypnum Buck is a generic synonym of Sclerohypnum Dix. In addition, seven new combinations are proposed: Clastobryopsis perdecurrens (Dix.) Tan, Clastobryum epiphyllum (Ren. & Card.) Tan & Touw, Leiodontium surculare (Dix.) Buck & Tan, Papillidiopsis ramulina var. voluta (Mitt.) Tan, Sclerohypnum littorale (Hampe) Tan, Trichosteleum ruficaule (Thwait. & Mitt.) Tan, and Trichosteleum serrulatum (Broth.) Tan. Several new records were also reported for southeast Asian countries.
Seventeen species of Polytrichaceae (Musci) occur in Taiwan. Atrichum P. Beauv. is represented by two species, A. crispulum Schimp. ex Besch. and A. undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv.; Oligotrichum Lam. & Cand. by two species, O. suzukii (Broth.) Chuang and O. obtusatum Broth.; Pogonatum P. Beauv. by ten species including one subspecies, P. camusii (Thér.) Touw, P. cirratum (Sw.) Brid. ssp. cirratum, P. cirratum ssp. fuscatum (Hyvönen) Mitt., P. fastigiatum Mitt., P. microstomum (Schwaegr.) Brid., P. neesii (C. Müll.) Dozy, P. nudiusculum Mitt., P. perichaetiale (Mont.) Jaeg., P. proliferum Mitt., P. tahitense Schimp. in Besch. and P. urnigerum (Hedw.) P. Beauv.; Polytrichastrum G. L. Sm. by two species, P. alpinum (Hedw.) G. L. Sm. and P. formosum (Hedw.) G. L. Sm.; and Polytrichum Hedw. by one species, P. commune Hedw. Oligotrichum obtusatum Broth. is recorded for the first time in Taiwan. The paper includes a key for all species, as well as diagnoses, illustrations and distributional data. Nomenclatural notes and discussions on taxonomy are also included.
The investigation of the thallous liverwort Monoclea gottschei subsp. neotropica from Panama resulted in the isolation of the bisbibenzyls marchantin C, neomarchantin A, and perrottetin E, the latter being the major constituent (3.3% of dry plant). This is the highest bisbibenzyl content ever found in a liverwort. Further compounds identified were a variety of sesquiterpenes, stigmasterol, and phytyl phytenate. So far, phytenic acid has only been known from mosses.
First contribution to the study of the bryophytes gathered on the philippines by the author and Salgado Edward. Eleven taxa of the genus Leptolejeunea are mentioned and illustrated. Five of these seem new to the visited isles. A key to the mentioned species is given.
The Japanese Aneuraceae were taxonomically revised. The keys to genera and subgenera were provided. Subgenus Lobatiriccardia was treated as a proper genus distinct from Aneura.
Twenty-seven species of the Aneuraceae were recognized. Two new species of Aneura and eight new species of Riccardia were described: They are Aneura gemmifera, A. hirsuta, Riccardia aeruginosa, R. arcuata, R. flavovirens, R. glauca, R. pumila, R. spongiosa, R. subalpina and R. vitrea. Four new combinations were made: They are Aneura blasioides (Horik.) Furuki, Lobatiriccardia yakusimensis (Hatt.) Furuki, Riccardia multifida (L.) Gray. subsp. decrescens (Steph.) Furuki and R. latifrons (Lindb.) Lindb. var. miyakeana (Schiffn.) Furuki. Riccardia baumannii Hürl., R. latifrons (Lindb.) Lindb., R. marginata (Col.) Pears. var. pacifica Furuki (var. nov.) and R. tamariscina (Steph.) Schiffn. were newly added to the Japanese hepatic flora. For each species synonymy was given together with pertinent literature along with its type, illustration, discussion, selected specimens and geographical distribution. Five distribution patterns were recognized.