The Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory
Online ISSN : 2432-8944
Print ISSN : 0073-0912
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Showing 1-50 articles out of 58 articles from the selected issue
  • HIROYUKI AKIYAMA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 1-14
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: August 16, 2018
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      Taxon once recognized as a member of the genus Trismegistia was revised on the basis of critical re-examination of type and other materials. Four new combinations, Mastopoma deningeri (Herzog) H.Akiyama, Mastopoma pulchellum (Herzog) H.Akiyama, Rhaphidorrhynchium breviflagellosum (Müll.Hal.) H.Akiyama, and Wijkia monodii (P. de la Varde) H.Akiyama, are proposed. Inter-relationships among Trismegistia and other closely related genera are discussed and artificial keys to these genera are provided.

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  • ROLF BLÖCHER, DIETMAR QUANDT, JAN-PETER FRAHM
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 15-30
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The controversy of whether the paleoaustral genus Acrocladium Mitt. consists of one or two species is discussed. In a molecular analysis using the trnL intron and the rps4 gene of the cpDNA, the ITS 1 & 2 of the nrDNA as well as the nuclear adk gene, clear evidence was found for the existence of two genetically distinct taxa, a Chilean-Argentinian species, A. auriculatum (Mont.) Mitt. and a New Zealand-Australian species, A. chlamydophyllum (Hook. f. & Wils.) Broth. It is supposed that both species are derived from a common ancestor before the break-up of Gondwana, as the observed genetic distance is in sharp contrast to rather recent long distance dispersal events.

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  • M. A. BRUGGEMAN-NANNENGA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 31-33
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      A neotype is designated for Fissidens plumosus Hornsch. The holotype of Fissidens boryanus Besch., a synonym of F. plumosus, is identified; this specimen replaces the “type” selected earlier by Bizot. New distributional records for F. plumosus are reported for Madagascar and Mozambique.

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  • MICHAEL BURGHARDT, STEPHAN ROBBERT GRADSTEIN, JIRI VÁŇA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 35-39
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The monospecific liverwort genus Cephalojonesia (Cephaloziellaceae), known from a few localities in Central Africa, is newly reported from Mexico. Based on characters of the female involucre the Mexican material is described as a new subspecies, C. incuba subsp. mexicana Burghardt, Gradst. & Váňa. The new subspecies is illustrated and discussed, and an updated key to the genera of Cephaloziellaceae of tropical America is provided.

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  • TONG CAO, BENRONG ZUO, SHUI-LIANG GUO, JAAKKO HYVÖNEN, VIIVI VIRTANEN
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 41-52
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Based on a comparison of type and other specimens, Ptychomitrium patens (Müll. Hal.) Par. and P. obtusifolium (Borth.) Par. are reduced to synonymy of P. sellowianum (Müll. Hal.) Jaeger, and P. papillosum (Herz.) Card. is reduced to synonymy of P. chimborazense (Mitt.) Jaeger. Three new combinations are proposed: P. gardneri var. angustifolium (Nog.) Cao & Guo, P. sellowianum var. angustifolium (Broth.) Cao & Guo, and P. hieronymi var. obtusifolium (Thér.) Cao & Guo. Ptychomitrium ferrugineum (Herz.) Broth. is described in detail based on the holotype.

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  • BARBARA J. CRANDALL-STOTLER, RAYMOND E. STOTLER
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 53-67
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The salient features of Xenothallus vulcanicola R. M. Schust. are illustrated, including details of gemma, conducting strand, and gynoecial anatomy. In addition, the sporophyte generation of Xenothallus R. M. Schust. is described for the first time, based on samples collected from a population of this taxon from Arthur's Pass, South Island, New Zealand. The sporophytes, which matured in a vermiculite culture of the plants, closely resemble those found in Symphyogyna undulata Colenso and Greeneothallus gemmiparus Hässel. The capsule is short cylindric, with an apical mamilla, the capsule wall is 2-layered, the elaters are 3 or 4 spiralled and occasionally branched, and the distal spore wall is ornamented with densely packed, thick, truncate lamellae. These findings provide morphological evidence congruent with recently published molecular analyses that resolve Xenothallus and Greeneothallus Hässel nested within Symphyogyna Nees & Mont.

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  • JOHANNES ENROTH, MENGCHENG JI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 69-76
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Shevockia Enroth & M.C. Ji gen. nov. (Neckeraceae, Bryopsida) is described from SE Asia. It has two species, S. inunctocarpa Enroth & M.C. Ji sp. nov. (generitype) from Yunnan Province of China, and S. anacamptolepis (Müll. Hal.) Enroth & M.C. Ji comb. nov., which has a wider distribution in Asia. Shevockia is morphologically close to Pinnatella, but differs especially in several gametophyte characters: 1) distinctly asymmetric leaves, 2) often undulate upper parts of stem leaves (less so in branch leaves), 3) relatively weak and short, sometimes bifurcate costa, and 4) presence of numerous large, leaf-like pseudoparaphyllia around the branch primordia. Shevockia inunctocarpa is illustrated by line drawings and a photograph.

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  • BELÉN ESTÉBANEZ, TOMIO YAMAGUCHI, HIRONORI DEGUCHI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 77-87
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The peristome characters in Glyphomitrium humillimum and their development are presented. The mature peristome conforms to the Seligeria-type, except for the extreme irregularity of inner peristome layer (IPL) and the frequent occurrence of misplaced cells in the primary peristome layer (PPL) column. The tooth structure depends almost entirely on PPL thickenings, with some contribution of outer peristome layer (OPL) walls, forming a basal exostome. In its development, the PPL reaches its final number of cells in early stages, the OPL arises from the exothecium and an OPL2 is formed either from exothecial or OPL cell divisions. In spite of this variable development of OPL2 and of the flexibility of the sequence of developmental events, the final pattern (8 exothecial cells: 8 OPL2 cells: 4 OPL cells: 2 PPL cell per octant) is very constant in all sections examined, suggesting it is a taxonomically stable character for the genus.

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  • TATSUWO FURUKI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 89-99
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The family Aneuraceae (Hepaticae) based on the Philippines collections made by Dr. and Mrs. A. J. Sharp and Dr. Z. Iwatsuki was taxonomically studied. Twenty species and three genera are recognized. Among them twelve species are new additions to the known hepatic flora of the Philippines and two species are described as new to science: R. magnicellularis Furuki and Riccardia philippinensis Furuki. Lobaririccrdia coronopus (Steph.) Furuki is a new combination. Riccardia ridleyi Schiffn. is reduced to a synonym of Riccardia elata Schiffn.

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  • GABRIELA G. HÄSSEL DE MENÉNDEZ
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 101-118
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Two sections of Plagiochila are discussed, described and illustrated: Sectio Hirtae Carl with only Plagiochila acanthocaulis Sull. and Sectio Angulatae Carl emend. Hässel, including P. angulata Steph. and P. heterodonta (Hook. f. & Taylor) Gottsche & al.

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  • SI HE
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 119-124
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The systematic position of the genus Diaphanodon Renauld & Cardot is critically reviewed. Subspecific ranks under Diaphanodon blandus (Harvey) Renauld & Cardot are no longer recognized. Diaphanodon laevivittatus Zanten & Townsend is synonymized with D. blandus. Diaphanodon friisii Bizot & Lewinsky is transferred from the subspecies of D. blandus to a synonym of D. procumbens (C. Müller) Renauld & Cardot. Diaphanodon, consisting of two species, is now placed in the Leskeaceae. A key to species is provided.

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  • LARS HEDENÄS
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 125-134
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The phylogeny of the Calliergon-Loeskypnum-Straminergon-Warnstorfia clade is reconstructed based on nuclear and chloroplast sequence data, and morphology from an earlier study, but with the addition of two chloroplast markers that contributed 23 (of a total of 113) or 13 (95) characters with or without insertions and deletions coded as informative, respectively. Based on the total data set Calliergon, which appeared as a grade in the earlier study, is now resolved as monophyletic. The separation of the autoicous and dioicous Warnstorfia species in two separate lineages was indicated by the earlier study and the support for this is even higher in the present study. The dioicous species are therefore all transferred to the genus Sarmentypnum Tuom. & T. J. Kop., which was earlier described to accomodate S. sarmentosum (Wahlenb.) Tuom. & T. J. Kop. The new combinations Sarmentypnum exannulatum (Schimp.) Hedenäs, S. luipichense (R. S. Williams) Hedenäs, S. procerum (Renauld & Arnell) Hedenäs, S. pseudosarmentosum (Cardot & Thér.) Hedenäs, S. trichophyllum (Warnst.) Hedenäs, and S. tundrae (Arnell) Hedenäs, are made.

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  • JOCHEN HEINRICHS, DAVID S. RYCROFT, KATRIN FELDBERG, MELANIE LINDNER, ...
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 135-142
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Neotropical Plagiochila surinamensis differs from P. (sect. Rutilantes) gymnocalycina in having fragile leaf teeth. Phylogenetic analyses of nrITS sequences of several representatives of P. sects. Rutilantes and Arrectae lead to a well-resolved topology in which P. surinamensis is placed sister to P. gymnocalycina with good bootstrap support. The phytochemical profile of a deuterochloroform extract of P. surinamensis consists essentially of 4-hydroxy-3 '-methoxybibenzyl and β-phellandrene, a combination observed previously in P. gymnocalycina only. Based on this topology and the morphological and phytochemical similarities, P. surinamensis is reduced to a variety of P. gymnocalycina. Plagiochila wolfii is placed in the synonymy of P. gymnocalycina var. surinamensis.

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  • BOON-CHUAN HO, B. C. TAN, NANA S. HERNAWATI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 143-190
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      This is the first checklist of mosses of Sumatra compiled from published literatures and consists of 490 species in 162 genera. Five new combinations are proposed ― Dicranella ruttneri (J.Froehl.) B.C.Ho, B.C.Tan & N.Hemawati, Pohlia merapicola (Baumgartner & J.Froehl.) B.C.Ho, B.C.Tan & N.Hernawati, Scopelophila ligulata var. compacta (M.Fleisch.) B.C.Ho, B.C.Tan & N.Hemawati, Scopelophila repandula (Baumgartner & J.Froehl.) B.C.Ho, B.C.Tan & N.Hemawati, and Wijkia tanytrichoides (Baumgartner & J.Froehl.) B.C.Ho, B.C.Tan & N.Hemawati.

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  • MICHAEL S. IGNATOV, IRINA A. MILYUTINA, SANNA HUTTUNEN
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 191-199
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Brachythecium auriculatum A. Jaeger was synonymized with Palamocladium leskeoides by Hoffman (1998). The present study shows their independence. Brachythecium complanatum Broth. is reported from Japan for the first time; this species was confused before with the superficially similar B. garovaglioides (=B. wichurae). Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided.

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  • ROBERT R. IRELAND, HAROLD ROBINSON, GILDA BELLOLIO
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 201-209
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Numerous new collections are reported for the Chilean monotypic, endemic genus Hebantia (Polytrichaceae), mainly as a result of extensive field work in the Bío-Bío Region in the south-central part of the country. A complete list of collections of H. rigida (Lorentz) G. L. S. Merrill is provided. The ecology of the species, previously unknown, is discussed. Several morphological features are shown in SEM micrographs and light microscopy. The morphology of the male and female plants is found to differ in a number of features

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  • JUAN A. JIMÉNEZ
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 211-292
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The moss genus Didymodon Hedw. is revised for Europe, North Africa, and Southwest and Central Asia. A key, descriptions, illustrations, distribution data, LM and SEM photographs of the 30 species recognized are provided. Lectotypes for Barbula icmadophila Schimp. ex Müll. Hal., Desmatodon rupestris Funck ex Brid., Didymodon angustifolius Warnst., D. austriacus Schiffn. & Baumgartner, D. cordatus var.flaccidus Röll, Tortula sinuosa Mitt., T. acuta Brid., T. gracilis Schleich. ex Hook. & Grev., T. insulana De Not., and Zygotrichia cylindrica Taylor are proposed. Barbula rigidula var. desertorum J. Froehl. and Trichostomum lamyanum are newly synonymized with D. rigidulus Hedw. and D. brachyphyllus (Sull) R. H. Zander respectively. Didymodon angustifolius Warnst. and D. cordatus var. schisticolus C. C. Towns. are excluded from the genus Didymodon. New records for countries of the study area are reported.

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  • NIELS KLAZENGA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 293-303
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Results of cladistic analyses of both ITS and trnL-trnF sequences, as well as peristome structure, suggest that the species currently recognised as Dicranoloma trichopodum (Mitt.) Broth. is affiliated to Holomitrium. A new combination, Holomitrium trichopodum (Mitt.) Klazenga, is proposed.

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  • TIMO KOPONEN, MENGCHENG JI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 305-309
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Rhizomnium hattorii T. J. Kop. was found in Wuyishan National Reserve on Mt. Wuyishan at ca 2000 m. The site is situated in orotemperate deciduous hardwood forest. The collection is composed of male stems and sterile shoots. On the basis of the earlier known distribution in Japan and Korea it is to be expected that R. hattorii may have a wider distribution on the “second step” mountainous areas in Central China, and possibly on the Himalayas.

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  • SANNA LAAKA-LINDBERG, HELENA KORPELAINEN, MARIA POHJAMO
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 311-323
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The spatial distribution of three epixylic hepatics, Anastrophyllum hellerianum, Lophozia silvicola and L. longiflora, was analyzed in a boreal old-growth forest in southern Finland, by applying Ripley's K-function and its modification (L(r)). The studied species inhabit coarse woody debris (CWD), a clearly delimited, patchily distributed substrate of varying quality depending on the tree species, patch size and stage of decay. The three hepatic species differ in substrate specificity and in reproductive mode, whether prevailingly sexual or asexual. The combination of substrate specificity and the frequency of sexual and asexual reproduction leads to differing spatial patterns in each species. Our results support the hypothesis that randomness in distribution is related to frequent spore production, since spores are considered to be the means of distance-dispersal, while an aggregated pattern is an outcome of local dispersal by asexual propagules. Substrate specificity combined with the frequency of spore production influences the scale of aggregation in species relying primarily on asexual reproduction and local dispersal.

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  • RONALD I. LEWIS SMITH, RYSZARD OCHYRA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 325-331
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Soil samples from the summit of Coulman Island in northern Victoria Land, continental Antarctica (lat. 73°28'S, 169°45'E), were cultured and after nine weeks they have yielded sterile shoots of a funarialean moss. Its identity is discussed and, on the basis of the leaf shape, it is determined, with some reservation, as Entosthodon subnudus (Taylor) Fife, a species native to the Australia-New Zealand biogeographical province. This example provides further evidence of the existence of soil propagule banks, sometimes containing taxa not known in the flora of the Antarctic biome. Because of the severity of the polar climate and permanently frigid dry desert conditions, many such propagules may never succeed in growing in situ. The occurrence of E. subnudus represents the highest elevation (2930 m) at which a viable plant propagule has been recorded in Antarctica.

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  • TAMÁS PÓCS
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 333-350
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      One of the smallest members of its genus is Plagiochila artsii sp. nov. which is described from the Réunion Island, collected from a tree fern stem by the late Belgian bryologist, Theo Arts. It is characterized, apart from its small size, by the irregularly bi-trilobed leaves with narrow, caducous segments. Plagiochila hiroshiana is described from the Nguru Mountains of Tanzania, a member of the crystalline Eastern Arc mountains, notorious for their richness in endemics and Madagascar links. Both species are members of the montane, mossy cloud forests. P. artsii has uncertain affinity to members of sect. Arrectae with caducous leaf lobes, while P. hiroshiana is related to some Neotropical members of sect. Vagae.

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  • RONALD A. PURSELL
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 351-354
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Fissidens curvatus occurs in Pennsylvania where collections were made in a conservatory in Pittsburgh. The species is otherwise known in the United States only from a number of counties in California. The Pennsylvania and California collections represent different expressions of F. curvatus, and it is postulated that they are the result of inadvertent introductions. In California this introduction occurred probably in the San Francisco Bay area.

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  • W. B. SCHOFIELD
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 355-360
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Brotherella canadensis Schof. Is described as a new species endemic to the Pacific coast of North America. It is allied to B. roellii (Ren. & Card.) Fleisch., also an endemic species. An illustration and distribution map are provided, as is a key to North American Brotherella.

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  • RUDOLF M. SCHUSTER
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 361-406
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • JAMES R. SHEVOCK, RYSZARD OCHYRA, WILLIAM R. BUCK
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 407-418
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Hydrocryphaea wardii Dixon, collected during a joint Sino-American expedition to the Gaoligongshan in 2002 and 2004, is reported new for China from Yunnan Province. These new Chinese records are geographically between the previously recorded sites of Assam, India, and Laos and Vietnam. The ecology and distribution of the moss are discussed. A revised description and new illustration of H. wardii are provided.

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  • M. L. SO, JIAN WANG
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 419-430
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      A revision of Frullania Raddi in Hawaii is presented. Six species are recognized: F. apiculata (Reinw. et al.) Nees, F. crenatiloba Steph., F. hypoleuca Nees, F. meyeniana Lindenb., F. oahuensis Hampe ex Gottsche, Lindenb. & Nees, and F. sandvicensis Ångstr. Frullania crenatiloba and F. sandvicensis are reinstated as distinct species. Frullania hawaiiensis H.A.Miller and F. angstromii A.Evans ex Steph. are synonymized with F. crenatiloba and F. sandvicensis respectively. Frullania ericoides (Nees) Mont. and F. neurota Taylor are excluded from the Hawaiian bryoflora. Brief descriptions and photomicrographs for all the species of the region are provided, as well as a key differentiating between the different taxa.

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  • LARS SÖDERSTRÖM, ANA SÉNECA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 431-441
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Global analysis of bryophyte distribution ranges is generally absent from the literature. In order to understand general patterns of distribution we studied those for the members of the Lophoziaceae/Scapaniaceae complex at a worldwide scale. Number of species and number of restricted species was investigated for the geographical units at three levels (continents, regions and areas). A rarity index was developed in order to identify areas where restricted species occurred and these areas were mapped. Differences in average distribution range and in the evenness of the distribution patterns were analyzed for various distribution groups.

      Himalaya, south-central China, Hawaii, Malesia, New Zealand, Tasmania. Venezuela, southern South America and some subantarctic Islands are hot spots for restricted species in the group. There are more species north of the tropics than in the tropics and south of the tropics and the northern species have much wider distribution and occur more evenly on available land areas than the rest.

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  • JONG-SUK SONG, KOHSAKU YAMADA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 443-450
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      In the summer of 2002, we made a bryological excursion to Jeju (Cheju), South Korea, and collected 290 packets of Hepatics from lower to middle elevations of the island. Among them, 13 species are new additions to the known hepatic flora from Jeju island. A total of 114 species, 4 subspecies, and 4 varieties of Hepatics belonging to 48 genera and 27 families are now represented in the hepatic flora of the island.

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  • MICHAEL STECH, TANJA PFEIFFER, WOLFGANG FREY
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 451-464
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Phylogenetic analyses of plastid trnLUAA intron and nuclear ribosomal ITS1 and ITS2 sequences clearly separate the Southern Hemisphere Dicranoloma from the mainly Northern Hemisphere Dicranum. Both genera form monophyletic groups together with closely related satellite genera, Dicranoloma with Braunfelsia, and Dicranum with Orthodicranum/Paraleucobryum. Within Dicranoloma, the widespread species D. billarderi and D. robustum represent a closely related species pair in the molecular trees that is separated from clades of exclusively South American (D. capillare, D. chilense) and Australasian (D. dicarpum, D. diaphanoneuron, D. menziesii, D. plurisetum) species. Intraspecific sequence variation occurs in both D. billarderi and D. robustum, especially in the most variable ITS1. The geographic distribution of genotypes indicates recent or ongoing long-range dispersal of diaspores, which is consistent with the occurrence of both species on sub-Antarctic islands and their high capacity of spore dispersal. Patterns of genetic divergence in D. billarderi and D. robustum are markedly different from those observed in previously analyzed palaeoaustral bryophyte taxa, which are either scarcely differentiated in the geographically separated areas or show a clear molecular separation of populations or taxa in the respective regions.

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  • TADASHI SUZUKI, ZENNOSKE IWATSUKI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 465-468
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Fissidens soldanianus Tad.Suzuki & Z.Iwats. is described from Vietnam. It is an aquatic species, and in general aspect it is similar to subgenus Octodiceras. However, this species does not belong to subgenus Octodiceras, but perhaps is related to the eastern Asiatic F. geminiflorus and allies which grow in similar habitats. Fissidens soldanianus is easily distinguished from F. geminiflorus by its lack of axillary hyaline nodules, non-decurrent dorsal lamina, and a costa that ends far below the leaf apex.

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  • TADASHI SUZUKI, ZENNOSKE IWATSUKI, HIROSHI KIGUCHI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 469-493
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Species of Seligeria were little known in Japan until recently. Index Muscorum Japonicorum (Iwatsuki and Noguchi, 1973) listed only two species of the genus. We have been much interested in these small, calciphilous mosses, and collected in many places in Japan. In this paper, we list 10 species (with one variety) of Seligeria, together with four species of Brachydontium and two species of Blindia of the family Seligeriaceae. Seligeria acutifolia Lindb. and S. patula (Lindb.) Broth. are newly added to the moss flora of Japan. The new combination, Brachydontium pseudodonnianum (Tad.Suzuki & Z.Iwats.) Tad.Suzuki & Z.Iwats. is made. Keys to the genera and species of the family are given. Descriptions and illustrations of newly added species, Seligeria acutifolia and S. patula and S. pusilla, which has been insufficiently understood in Japan, are given. Distribution maps of 16 species of the family are provided.

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  • ANDRIES TOUW
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 495-515
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Dutch bryological exploration of Indonesia started with C.G.C. Reinwardt, who collected bryophytes in Java, Sulawesi and the Moluccas between 1816 and 1822. His mosses, including many species new to science, were identified by C.F. Hornschuch, C.G.D. Nees ab Esenbeck, and C.F. Schwägrichen. Many type specimens are missing from Reinwardt's herbarium at Leiden because he distributed unicates as well as duplicates. Moreover, it is often impossible to establish whether the material present is part of a type collection. Around 1840 J.H. Molkenboer and F. Dozy started identifying Indonesian and Japanese mosses, which resulted ultimately in the publication of Bryologia javanica (Dozy & Molkenboer, 1844-1870). Their work is briefly sketched. After their untimely death R.B. van den Bosch and C.M. van der Sande Lacoste completed Bryologia javanica. Almost all specimens Molkenboer and Dozy treated in their first publications were borrowed from the Rijksherbarium. They received a single set from one or several specimens of each species, on condition that all material had to be returned intact, thus leaving them without any reference material. Much later the specimens borrowed became incorrectly labelled ‘Herbarium Dozy en Molkenboer’. The typification of their new species is complicated by restrictions imposed on them, by the absence of collecting data from their Muscorum frondosorum (1844), and by incorrect, incomplete, or confusing herbarium data. These points are discussed and some are illustrated by the typification of Astrodontium indicum. Fleischer's interpretation of many species needs to be reconsidered, because many seemingly authentic specimens he borrowed were unreliable isotypes not seen by Dozy and Molkenboer. Their private herbarium of Indonesian mosses was left to their successors and finally to the Rijksherbarium, where it became an unmarked part of Van der Sande Lacoste's herbarium.

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  • HIROMI TSUBOTA, ASUMO KURODA, HIROAKI MASUZAKI, MIHO NAKAHARA, HIRONOR ...
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 517-525
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Allelopathy is a common phenomenon in plants, with environmental impacts in ecosystems through interference of allelochemicals that inhibit or promote growth and activity of other life. In this study, allelopathic activities of bryophytes, represented by Sphagnum palustre, Racomitrium japonicum, Dicranum japonicum, and Hypnum plumaeforme, were detected using the sandwich method for bioassay of allelopathic effect for lettuce under laboratory conditions. Most of the representatives more or less showed inhibition or promotion of radicle elongations of lettuce seedlings. These results suggested that bryophytes also have allelopathic activities, and the influence would provide the ecosystems one of the factors for decelerating progressive succession in an early stage of succession of vegetation.

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  • B. O. VAN ZANTEN
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 527-552
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      A taxonomic review of the genus Racopilum in Asia, Australasia and Oceania recognizes eleven species and two varieties. The phyllotaxis is explained. Fourteen species and fourteen varieties and formae are reduced to synonyms of other Racopilum taxa. Thirteen lectotypes are designated. One new species (R. tubiformis Zanten) from Sumatra is described. A key for identification is provided. For each species synonymy, typification, description, distribution, habitat and notes are given.

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  • MATT VON KONRAT, JOHN BRAGGINS, YOSHINORI ASAKAWA, MASAO TOYOTA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 553-576
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Frullania Raddi is a large and complex liverwort genus, with a worldwide distribution, consisting of over 1000 binomials. Historically, many critical morphological and anatomical features have constantly been neglected or overlooked and this has resulted in considerable taxonomic confusion for a number of species. An assessment of Frullania congesta Gottsche, Lindenb. & Nees is used as a case study to discuss species concepts. A synthesis of significant taxonomic characters is provided in an effort to help refine species boundaries within the genus, and to provide an aid in future monographic and regional studies. We stress the importance of examining a suite of morphological and chemical characters that are significant in Frullania systematics for determining satisfactory species boundaries; the study of live material and the ecology is also essential. Salient morphological features include those associated with the initial branching appendages, cell wall anatomy, oil bodies, position of gynoecia, and ornamentation of the spore surface. Lectotypification of F. congesta and F. dissitifolia Steph. are also provided.

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  • TOMIO YAMAGUCHI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 577-580
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Pachyneuropsis miyagii T.Yamag., a new species of Pottiaceae from Okinawa Island, Japan, is described. This species is similar to P. bartlettii (E.B.Bartram) H.A.Mill., but has curious moniliform axillary hairs which are the most diagnostic character of this new species.

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  • RICHARD H. ZANDER
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 581-602
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Genomic studies have shown that evolution can be based on clusters of genes that may be silenced and reactivated much later. Thus, apparent phylogenetic homoplasy may sometimes represent a one-time developmental response to selection, involving many genes or gene clusters and one or more regulators, and as such may be called homoiology. Evidence for such exaptions (pre-adaptions) in many organisms is cited. Distinctive features of the Pottiaceae (Bryopsida), the complex gametophytic morphology characterized by the pleisiomorphic Timmiella and the twisted peristome of 32 filamentous, spiculose teeth distal to a basal membrane are suggested to be likewise homoiologous. The characteristic peristome may have reappeared in the family four to seven times. Inasmuch as exaptions may skip across cladistic events tracked by non-coding or neutral gene traits, this paper re-evaluates past evolutionary schema in light of an apparent, theoretically acceptable exception to Dollo's Law that complex traits are never re-evolved. An evolutionary diagram based in part on inferred process is offered in place of the usual cladogram based on inferred events of genetic isolation.

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  • RUI-LIANG ZHU, DAN WANG, LING XU, RUI-PING SHI, JIAN WANG, MIN ZHENG
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 603-615
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Disc diffusion assay was used to screen for antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of 60 bryophytes belonging to 39 genera, including 38 liverworts, one hornwort, and 21 mosses from China and Mongolia. Out of 60 bryophytes, 56 species (93.3%), including all liverworts tested, have detectable antibacterial activity against at least two of the selected seven bacteria, including four Gram positive (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas putida). Seventeen species (two mosses and 15 liverworts) are active against all seven selected bacterial species. Out of 21 mosses, four species did not show positive evidence. Antibacterial activity was particularly prominent in the members of Conocephalum, Frullania, Herbertus, Marchantia, Mastigophora, and Porella. The antibacterial activity of the alcoholic extracts of Bazzania tridens, Herbertus aduncus, Porella densifolia, Polytrichum commune, and Thuidium kanedae, expressed as MICs (minimal inhibitory concentration) and MBCs (minimal bactericidal concentration), were compared with three reference antibiotic drugs. Out of the seven bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus is most resistant to the extracts of both liverworts and mosses. Pseudomonas putida is most sensitive to the extracts of mosses, and Bacillus subtilis is most sensitive to the extract of liverworts. The broad spectrum of antibacterial activity shown in the present study suggests that most liverworts are worthy of further investigation for the nature of their definitive antibacterial compounds and other potentially biologically active ingredients. The investigation of oil bodies of the tested liverworts reveals that there is no correlation between the antibacterial activity and the size and numbers of oil bodies.

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  • ANDRÉ APTROOT, LOENGRIN UMAÑA, JOSE LUIS CHAVES, MARIE THERESE TREST
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 617-623
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Three new genera of squamulose lichens are described new to science on the basis of three new species from Costa Rica. Aciculopsora salmonea Aptroot & Trest is mainly characterized by the needle-shaped ascospores and the internal salmon with yellow pigmentation, which becomes much enhanced in KOH. Lueckingia polyspora Aptroot & Umaña seems close to Physcidia, but differs by the polysporous asci, the lack of secondary substances and the microphylline thallus. Septotrapelia glauca Aptroot & Chaves is characterized by a dull bluish thallus and the large, clavate, 3-septate ascospores. The common paleotropical crustose Septotrapelia triseptata (Hepp) Aptroot is recognized as a further species in this genus.

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  • BAZYLI CZECZUGA, EWA CZECZUGA-SEMENIUK, ADRIANNA SEMENIUK
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 625-633
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The phycobiliprotein pigment content of eight species of Southern Hemisphere Pseudocyphellaria with cyanobacteria (Nostoc sp.) as photobionts was studied by means of ion-exchange chromatography. C-phycoerythrin, the dominant pigment, C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and allophycocyanin B were identified and the total phycobiliprotein content ranged from 0.732 (Pseudocyphellaria bartlettii) to 1.847 mg g-1 dry mass (P. dissimilis). The amino acids of proteins of C-phycoerythrin, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin were analysed. The biliproteins as complementary chromatic adaptation in lichens species is described.

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  • JOHN A. ELIX
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 635-649
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The following new species of Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) are described from southern and Western Australia: X. alligatensis Elix, X. auricampa Elix, X. baeomycesica Elix, X. capnoexillima Elix, X. convolutoides Elix, X. curnowiae Elix, X. echidnaformis Elix, X. ewersii Elix, X. fangii Elix, X. inopinata Elix, X. karolinensis Elix and X. nodulosa Elix.

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  • GERHARD FOLLMANN
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 651-670
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The discovery of two new roccelloid species of Santessonia (Physciaceae) in Pacific South America, S. peruviensis Follm. sp. nov. and S. roccelloides Follm. sp. nov., necessitated the compilation of a critical synopsis of the genus, including a revision and a key. Among other details, all taxa of Santessonia contained phycobionts belonging to Trebouxia sp. and accumulated secondary products of the norstictic-psoromic acid chemosyndrome. Moreover, a new type of soralia with hydroactive release of soredia was found in S. peruviensis. The morphological and anatomical structure, the chemosyndromic variation, as well as ecological and chorological characteristics, point to a remarkably homogeneous, obviously “natural” species group which is, nevertheless, highly isolated within the Physciaceae. Currently, Santessonia comprises six fruticose, clearly separated species all of which are disjunct relictual endemics of the Atlantic-Namibian and Pacific-Andean fog deserts. The evolutionary tendencies of the independent South African and South American populations show parallels with certain Roccellaceae. Apart from S. hereroensis and S. namibensis, S. cervicornis, S. lagunebergii, S. peruviensis and S. roccelloides appear to be very rare and highly endangered, theoretically being in need of protective measures.

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  • SIEGFRIED HUNECK
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 671-694
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The literature on the chemistry, chemotaxonomy and biological activity of lichen substances is reviewed for the period 2000-2005.

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  • PER M. JØRGENSEN, H. SIPMAN
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 695-720
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The Pannariaceae of the montane regions of New Guinea contain 37 species in nine genera. Ten species are endemic, mostly from the subalpine zone. The following species are newly described: Fuscopannaria cacuminum, F. venusta, Pannaria tenuis (from Borneo), Parmeliella foliicola, P. laceroides, P. montana, P. nitida, P. pannarioides, P. piundensis and Psoroma filicicola, and two new combinations are proposed: Degelia lecideola (Zahlbr.) (Java) and Pannaria papuana (Aptroot & Diederich) (new to Borneo). Pannaria andina P. M. Jørg. & Sipman and Pannaria aff. rubiginella P. M. Jørg. & Sipman are reported as new to Papua New Guinea, as well as Parmeliella hawaiiensis H. Magn.; the former two and Pannaria prolificans Vain. are also new to Borneo and part of a shared element between these disjunct, very high mountains. Parmeliella endomilta (Vain.) Makhija & Adawadkar (syn. nov. Parmeliella endoferruginea Aptroot and Parmeliella pannosa var. erythrocardia Müll. Arg.) is new to Borneo, Indonesia, Madagascar and Mauritius, Parmeliella philippina (Vain.) P. M. Jørg. new to Java and New Guinea, and Parmeliella polyphyllina P. M. Jørg. new to the Philippines. The origin of the Pannariaceae in this region is predominately paleotropical, mainly Australasian, but at high altitudes there are boreal, subantarctic and Andean elements, the latter being most intriguing.

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  • SYO KUROKAWA
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 721-738
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Sixteen phytogeographical elements are recognized in the lichen flora of Japan on the basis of their world distribution patterns, namely 1) holarctic, 2) bipolar, 3) alpine, 4) boreal, 5) Beringian, 6) eastern Asiatic-North American disjunctive, 7) northeast Asiatic, 8) pantemperate, 9) Sino-Japanese, 10) endemic, 11) pantropical, 12) paleotropical, 13) Indo-Malayan, 14) Pacific, 15) circum-Pacific, 16) Australian. Representative taxa belonging to each element are cited and their distributions are discussed in detail.

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  • MARA SACRISTÁN, ANA-MARÍA MILLANES, CARLOS VICENTE, MARÍA-ESTRELLA LEG ...
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 739-751
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      Arginase, which acts as a fungal lectin, is secreted from Evernia prunastri thalli mainly during spring although it also appears in the medium during the winter. However, urease, which behaves as a lectin ligand, is only secreted during the autumn and winter. In parallel, aplanosporangia formation and the release of small, young algal cells inside the thallus, occurred under short-day conditions and low temperature values. Thus, the synchronization of the production of the lectin ligand and algal cell division supports the recognition of new algal cells by the mycobiont forming the thallus.

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  • IMKE SCHMITT, YOSHIKAZU YAMAMOTO, H. THORSTEN LUMBSCH
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 753-764
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The phylogeny of Pertusariales was studied using partial sequences of the mitochondrial SSU and nuclear LSU rDNA of 96 ascomycetes, including 70 newly obtained sequences. Our analysis confirms Pertusariaceae being polyphyletic and falling into four well-supported monophyletic groups. Pertusariaceae s.str. is restricted to Pertusaria s.str. and Loxosporopsis that have an unsupported sister-group relationship with Coccotremataceae, while the Varicellaria- and Variolaria-groups are sister to Ochrolechia. Coccotremataceae, Pertusariaceae s.str., Ochrolechia, and the Varicellaria- and Variolaria-groups form a well-supported sister-group to Aspicilia, Lobothallia and Megaspora. Monophyly of Pertusariaceae and Megasporaceae+Pertusariaceae is significantly rejected using three different methods of hypothesis testing. Consequently, the concept of Megasporaceae is enlarged to include the genera Aspicilia and Lobothallia, and the Ochrolechiaceae R.C. Harris ex Lumbsch & Schmitt are newly described, including Ochrolechia, and tentatively the Varicellaria- and Variolaria-groups of Pertusaria s.lat.

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  • MARK R. D. SEAWARD, ANDRÉ APTROOT
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 765-781
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      A list of lichens for the Seychelles Group, based on field, herbarium and literature studies, is provided for the first time. Although these widely scattered Indian Ocean atolls, composed of 115 islands, differ geologically (ranging from calcareous corals to granites), ecologically (vegetation cover) and biogeographically (stretching over a distance of more than 1000 km), a preliminary list is valuable in providing an overview of their biodiversity and the potential for not only raising species numbers overall but for improving the level of recording for most islands. In all, 243 lichen taxa (219 determined to species, 10 to ± species and 13 to generic levels) have been recorded from 26 islands (mainly Silhouette, Mahé and Aldabra).

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  • KANAE TAKAHASHI, LI-SONG WANG, HIROMI TSUBOTA, HIRONORI DEGUCHI
    2006 Volume 100 Pages 783-796
    Published: August 30, 2006
    Released: September 19, 2018
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      The genetic identity of the mycobionts of the photosymbiodemes Sticta wrightii (chloromorph) and Dendriscocaulon sp. (cyanomorph) collected from Yunnan, China were compared and morphological descriptions provided. The relationships of Dendriscocaulon with the closely related genera Lobaria, Sticta and Pseudocyphellaria have been clarified using phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rDNA. The ITS rDNA phylogenies suggest that the mycobionts of Dendriscocaulon sp. and S. wrightii belong to a single species. The ITS regions of the S. wrightii and Dendriscocaulon sp. have highly variable sites between sequences. The sequences of S. wrightii and Dendriscocaulon sp. of the composite thallus have 100% homologies in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Furthermore, our investigation demonstrates the polyphyly of Sticta based on phylogenetic analysis and shows two distinct clades corresponding to S. wrightii and the Dendriscocaulon sister to Ricasolia s.1. group, and the other species of Sticta in the large Lobariaceae clade.

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