The Diphysciaceae are a small family of mosses consisting of one genus, Diphyscium Mohr. The family is distinguished by the unique combination of short setae, immersed capsules, collared axillary hairs, distinctly differentiated perichaetial leaves, and arthrodontous peristomes with pleated endostomes and exostomes that are rudimentary or lacking. The Diphysciaceae are taxonomically revised based on field studies, examination of 2500 specimens from 36 herbaria, and an extensive review of relevant literature. Fifteen species and one subspecies are recognized in the family: Diphyscium chiapense D. H. Norris, D. chiapense D. H. Norris subsp. unipapillosum (Deguchi) T. Y. Chiang & S. H. Lin, D. domingense (Brid.) W. R. Buck & Steere, D. fasciculatum Mitt., D. fendleri Müll. Hal., D. foliosum (Hedw.) Mohr, D. fulvifolium Mitt., D. kashmirense (H. Rob.) Magombo, D. longifolium Griff., D. lorifolium (Cardot) Magombo, D. mucronifolium Mitt., D. perminutum Takaki, D. pilmaiquen (Crosby) Magombo, D. pocsii (Bizot) R. H. Zander, D. satoi Tuzibe, and D. suzukii Z. Iwats. The following taxa are newly synonmized: Diphyscium foliosum F. Weber & D. Mohr var elatum Thér. = D. foliosum (Hedw.) Mohr, Diphyscium peruvianum Spruce ex Mitt.= Diphyscium longifolium Griff., and Diphyscium cumberlandianum Harvill = Diphyscium mucronifolium Mitt. Lectotypes for D. foliosum, D. domingense, and D. longifolium are newly selected. It is hypothesized here that D. chiapense is a polyploid, presumably through autopolyploidy.
Phylogenetic relationships among the species of Pylaisia and its relatives are investigated using nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast gene, rbcL. Nucleotide sequences of rbcL were determined in fourteen samples (six species) of the genus Pylaisia, one sample of Giraldiella levieri, one sample of Platygyrium repens, and two samples of the Hookeriales as out groups. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by the maximum-parsimony (MP) method, neighbor-joining (NJ) method, and maximum-likelihood (ML) method; and these topologies were compared with each other depending on the ML criteria. The sequence comparison reveals that the sequence reported as Pylaisia polyantha in our previous study is not that of P. polyantha, but that of Platygyrium repens. The result of the present study indicates the following: (1) the genus Pylaisia looks homogeneous including Giraldiella levieri, although it could not be concluded whether the genus Pylaisia is monophyletic because of insufficient information, (2) Platygyrium is placed in the Sematophyllaceae, and then the subfamily Pylaisioideae M.Fleisch. is polyphyletic, (3) P. selwynii is phylogenetically distinguished from P. brotheri, and (4) the populations of P. polyantha from the Russian Far East are phylogenetically distinguished from North European ones.
Seligeria pseudodonniana Tad.Suzuki & Z.Iwats. is described as new. It is related to S. donniana (Sm.) Müll. Hal., but distinguished by a differentiated annulus and thin-walled exothecial cells. Seligeria diversifolia Lindb. is newly added to the moss flora of Japan.
A taxonomic revision is provided of the species of the liverwort genus Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph. found in the Himalayan region and western China (Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces). Of the ten taxa reported in the past, seven species are confirmed to occur in the study area: (1) A. minutum (Schreb.) R.M.Schust., (2) A. hellerianum (Nees ex Lindenb.) R.M.Schust., (3) A. lignicola Schill & D.G.Long (recently described as a new species), (4) A. bidens (Nees) Steph., (5) A. donnianum (Hook.) Steph. (6) A. joergensenii Schiffn. and (7) A. assimile (Mitt.) Steph. Records for A. michauxii (Weber) Buch and A. piligerum (Nees) Steph. are considered to be based on misidentifications, while A. erectifolium (Steph.) Steph. is a synomym of Anastrepta orcadensis (Hook.) Schiffn. A key to the accepted species is provided, and for each a description and illustration is given, as well as relevant synonymy, typification, ecological notes and geographical distribution. The occurrence of sporophytes is reported for the highly disjunct Anastrophyllum joergensenii Schiffn. for the first time and these are described. The following regional geographical totals and new records are reported: Nepal 5 species; Sikkim 5 species (A. bidens new), Bhutan 7 species (A. minutum new), Yunnan 7 species (A. bidens and A. assimile new) and Sichuan 2 species (A. lignicola and A. assimile new). Anastrophyllum joergensenii is also reported as new to North America, from the Aleutian Islands. An analysis is presented of the ecology and phytogeography of the seven accepted species.
Ten species of Metzgeria are represented in Asia: M. consanguinea Schiffn., M. crassipilus (Lindb.) A. Evans, M. foliicola Schiffn., M. furcata (L.) Dumort., M. leptoneura Spruce, M. lindbergii Schiffn., M. pubescens (Schrank.) Raddi, M. robinsonii Steph., M. scobina Mitt., and M. temperata Kuwah. Twenty synonyms are proposed and a key to the species in Asia is provided. Metzgeria albinea Spruce and M. vivipara A. Evans are excluded from this region.
The sporocytes in all species of mosses and hornworts have been known to contain a single plastid, and the monoplastidic condition of sporocytes has been considered an important diagnostic character separating mosses and hornworts from liverworts. However, recent studies have shown the occurrence of monoplastidic sporocytes in some liverworts. In this paper, we summarize the result of recent investigations on monoplastidic cells of lower land plants and discuss the occasional occurrence of monoplastidic meiosis in liverworts.
The structure of oil bodies, a taxonomically very significant marker in the family Lejeuneaceae, is described and illustrated in six species from China, including three for the first time: Cheilolejeunea gaoi R.L.Zhu et al., Drepanolejeunea spicata (Steph.) Grolle et R.L.Zhu, and Otolejeunea semperiana (Gottsche ex Steph.) Grolle. Cheilolejeunea gaoi has Jungermannia-type oil bodies, which is unusual in this genus and confirms that oil bodies in Cheilolejeunea are heterotypic. Oil bodies of Otolejeunea semperiana are only 3-7 per cell and very different from those of O. schmidii (Tixier) Grolle, the only species of Otolejeunea in which oil bodies were hitherto known. Oil bodies in Drepanolejeunea (subg. Rhaphidolejeunea) spicata are similar to those observed in Drepanolejeunea and confirm the recent notion that Rhaphidolejeunea and Drepanolejeunea are congeneric.
From the Costa Rican liverwort Bryopteris filicina, German Plagiochila asplenioides, and Portuguese Porella canariensis, eight sesquiterpenoids and one diterpenoid, eleven sesqui- and one triterpenoid, and six sesquiterpenoids, respectively, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR techniques or by comparison of spectral data with those of authentic samples.
A survey of the calicioid lichens and fungi of Japan based on collections made by G. Thor during 1994 to 1999, and additional herbarium material is given. Bunodophoron and Sphaerophorus are not revised, but included by summarizing literature reports. 50 species are accepted as recorded from Japan, most of them restricted to old-growth, humid, boreal to temperate coniferous forests. The genus Sclerophora is reported from Japan for the first time. One species, Calicium muriformis, is described as new, and 23 species are reported as new to Japan: Calicium chlorosporum, C. salicinum, Chaenotheca chlorella, C. trichialis, Chaenothecopsis asperopoda, C. brevipes, C. consociata, C. debilis, C. irregularis, C. nana, C. pusiola, C. rubescens, C. sanguinea, C. viridireagens, Mycocalicium albonigrum, Phaeocalicium compressulum, Sclerophora amabilis, S. coniophaea, S. nivea, Sphinctrina leucopoda, S. turbinata, Stenocybe pullatula, and S. septata. Calicium japonicum and C. nipponense are taxonomic synonyms of C. chlorosporum, Calicium subquercinum f. dispersum of C. lenticulare, Mycocalicium japonicum of Sphinctrina tubaeformis, and Pyrgillus boninensis of P. javanicus. Lectotypes for Calicium japonicum, C. subquercinum, C. subquercinum f. dispersum, and Mycocalicium japonicum have been designated. Three earlier reported species, Calicium viride, Chaenotheca gracilenta and Stenocybe major, are excluded from the Japanese lichen flora since the reports were based on misidentifications. Most of the species are antitropical or have a Northern Hemispere temperate distribution. All species of calicioid lichens and fungi previously reported from Japan are included and references to earlier publications are provided. Keys to the taxa are presented, and short descriptions, diagnostic features, and notes on distributions are included.
Seven lichenicolous ascomycetes are described as new species living on South American Roccellaceae s. str. Three of these form part of the Arthoniaceae (1. Arthonia darbishirei Follm. & Wern. sp. nov. on Roccella nigerrima [Darb.] Follm., 2. A. ingaderiae Follm. sp. nov. on Ingaderia gracillima [Kremp.] Feige & Lumbsch and A. pulcherrima Darb., 3. A. prominens Follm. sp. nov. on I. gracillima [Kremp.] Feige & Lumbsch), four appertain to the Opegraphaceae (4. Lecanographa imitans Wern. & Follm. sp. nov. on Roccella humboldtiana Follm., 5. Opegrapha perturbans Follm. sp. nov. on I. pulcherrima Darb., 6. O. reinkellae Follm. sp. nov. on R. lirellina [Darb.] Follm., 7. Plectocarpon labyrinthicum Follm. sp. nov. on R. portentosa [Mont.] Darb.). Hence, the roccellicolous fungi observed share various basic characters with their hosts in the order Arthoniales. This is supposed to be the main reason why the fructifications of four of them (1, 2, 5, 6) were confused with genuine ones of their hosts in former times. Four species originate from Chile (2, 3, 5, 7), two from the Galapagos Islands (1, 4) and one from Perú (6). All hosts mentioned constitute endemics, but their fungal commensals (5), parasymbionts (1, 2) and parasites (3, 4, 6, 7) occupy throughout smaller areas of distribution. It is emphasized that the Roccellaceae s. str. are not as poor in lichenicolous fungi as generally accepted. The recently discovered representatives of roccellicolous ascomycetes are compared with the few hitherto known ones from other floral regions, and their joint developmental, symbiological and biogeographical traits, including taxonomical and nomenclatural problems, are briefly discussed.
When Evernia prunastri thalli are exposed to strong light (>300 μmol photons m-2 s-1), algal cells move from the algal layer to the medulla. This displacement is mainly observed in the apical (youngest) zone of the thallus. High irradiance concomitantly produces a substantial loss of chlorophyll a and an increase in the amount of chlorophyll b. As an additional defence mechanism against strong light, a protective screen absorbing high energy photons is formed due to deposition of fungal phenolics, mainly evernic acid, on the upper cortex.