Free convection flow of electrically conducting fluid over vertical flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is theoretically investigated. The nonlinear partical differential equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential ones by means of the difference-differential method. The solutions of the resulting equations can be expressed in the from of integrak equations. Numerical calculations are performed in solving the integral equations by the iterative numerical quadrature. The velocity profiles, temperature profiles with constant wall temperature were computed br various values of magnetic interaction parameter. The results show that the effects of magnetic induction are as follows; 1, It decreases the skin friction and heat transfer parameters. 2, It decreases the maximum velocity and shifts its location farther away from the wall. As a result it makes the temperature profile swell.
One of the important technology for semiconducting materials is to grow high purity and perfect crystals. Therefore, defect control in the materials is a key technology for realizing modern electronics, The basic research on defects is developing as electronic device technology is progressing. On the other hand, for a long time organic crystals (except polymer) have not been studied as technological materials, Crystal growth and defect properties of these crystals attracted the attention of few researchers. Recently, the reserach of crystal growth in organic crystals is becoming increasingly important to the field of application from optical devices to biological materials. Therefore, this article deals with basic properties of structual defects in organic crystals. Moreover, crystal growth and defect control in organic crystals are discussed. We exclude polymer crystals (except PTS polymer crystals) since large single crystals with high perfection have not been obtained.
This review discribes the relation between ionic radii and distribution coefficients based on results of investigations of garnet and huntite crystals. A new garnet crystal, Ca_3(Nb, Ga)_<2-x>Ga_30_<12>(CNGG), and a new huntite borate crystl, (Yb, Li)(Al, Mo)_3(B0_3)_4, for laser and self-frequency doubling applications, respectively, have been grown. CNGG single crystals were found to have disordered structure and showed promising properties for high power laser diode pumped laser. (Yb, Li)(Al, Mo)_3(B0_3)_4 crystas were found to have a composition which enables crystal growth from melt and showed superior non-liner optical properties. Common distirbution phemmena during a growth process of oxide crystals were observed. From a view point of these phenomena, one method which seems to beavailabe for searching new materials, was proposed.