The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology
Online ISSN : 1347-3506
Print ISSN : 0021-5198
ISSN-L : 0021-5198
Volume 15 , Issue 4
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • HISAO FUJISAWA, KOZO KAJIKAWA, YOSHIHIRO OHI, YUICHI HASHIMOTO, HIROSH ...
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 327-334
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The movement of 45Ca in brain cortex slices of guinea pigs and the influences on it of protoveratrine, ouabain, KCl and cocaine were examined. The following results were obtained.
    1. Addition of azide and omission of glucose resulted in an increase in 45Ca-influx. This increase in 45Ca-influx caused by depression of the metabolism was not significantly influenced by addition of cocaine.
    2. Protoveratrine, ouabain or a high concentration of KCl caused an increase in 45Ca-influx into brain slices. The increase caused by protoveratrine and ouabain was completely blocked by cocaine while that by KCl was partially blocked.
    3. Efflux of 45Ca from brain slices was reduced by replacing normal Ringer by Ca-free Ringer containing EDTA.
    4. There was an increase in 45Ca-efflux from brain slices on addition of protoveratrine, ouabain, KCl or azide both in normal Ringer and in Ca-free Ringer.
    5. Cocaine largely prevented the increased efflux of 45Ca caused by protoveratrine and ouabain, but the increased efflux of 45Ca caused by KCl was only partially inhibited and that by azide did not seem to be affected significantly by addition of cocaine.
    The role of calcium in membrane permeability and the action mechanisms of these drugs are discussed on the basis of these findings.
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  • TADAO ITOH, KOZO KAJIKAWA, YUICHI HASHIMOTO, HIROSHI YOSHIDA, REIJI IM ...
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 335-338
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. The uptake of 14C-labelled dopamine and norepinephrine by the subcellular granules in brain stem was investigated.
    2. The uptake was observed when the granules were incubated at 30°C and not occurred at 0°C. Much more dopamine was taken up than norepinephrine by the granules.
    3. Reserpine inhibited the uptake of both dopamine and norepinephrine, but oxypertine (Win 18501-2) inhibited only the uptake of norepinephrine at a very low concentration. Iproniazid and adenosine triphosphate influenced the uptake of norepinephrine to some extent.
    4. Preincubation of the granules with iproniazid rather potentiated the inhibitory action of reserpine on the uptake of norepinephrine.
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  • HIROSHI ITOH, YOSHIYA HORIGUCHI, HIDEO FURUYA, SHOKO YAMASAWA, RIRIKO ...
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 339-347
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. The mode of action of histamine and other endogenous amines on the peripheral hemodynamics in rabbits was investigated using a mechanical left ventricle according to J.C. Rose.
    2. The arterial and peripheral venous pressure together with the left auricular outflow were recorded under the controlled cardiac output, thereby arterial pressure represented the total peripheral resistance and the left auricular outflow to the reservoir indicated the venous return.
    3. Histamine injected intra-aortically increased the total peripheral resistance and acted also on the veins to increase the venous pressure and left auricular outflow, but the latter two decreased in the following period. The pulmonary vessels were affected by intravenously injected histamine to produce a significant decrease in the left auricular outflow.
    4. Adrenaline and noradrenaline administered intra-aortically raised the total peripheral resistance and venous pressure and increased the left auricular outflow significantly, but their action on the right ventricle and the pulmonary circulation to affect the left auricular outflow was not so significant. The action of these catecholamines on the capacitance vessels was noted.
    5. Serotonin administered intra-aortically increased the total peripheral resistance in most of the cases, the effect on the venous pressure and left auricular outflow resembling that of histamine. But serotonin administered intravenously produced characteristic von Bezold-like effect to lower the total peripheral resistance and vonous pressure together with the left auricular outflow.
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  • MOTOO OKA, TAKESHI OHUCHI, HIROSHI YOSHIDA, REIJI IMAIZUMI
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 348-356
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mechanism of release of catecholamine was studied using bovine adrenal medullary slices or granules.
    1. Acetylcholine or excess potassium caused an increase in the rate of catecholamine release from the slices. Omission of calcium from the incubation medium also stimulated the release of catecholamine.
    2. The stimulatory effect of acetylcholine or excess potassium was lost when calcium was omitted from the medium, and markedly inhibited by the addition of cocaine.
    3. Addition of reserpine or tyramine stimulated the release of catecholamine from the slices. The effect of reserpine was diminished in calcium free medium, but that of tyramine was not affected in calcium free medium. Cocaine had a weak inhibitory effect on the release of catecholamine caused by reserpine but no effect on the response to tyramine.
    4. Calcium ion itself stimulated the released of catecholamine from the granules, but its effect was prevented by magnesium.
    From the above results it is suggested that calcium ion plays a cardinal role in the process of catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla and it acts as a link between the excitation of the membrane and the secretory response.
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  • AKIRA SAKUMA, YOSHIAKI NONOMURA, HAJIME KANAMURA, MASANORI OTSUKA
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 357-361
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • SEKIZO KOJIMA, KATSUYA IWATSUBO, HIROSHI KIMURA, KIHEI OTORI
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 362-368
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An attempt was made to know whether the late phase block of nicotine on the superior cervical ganglion is due to the same mechanism of action as that of the competitive blocking agents by a quantitative comparing method.
    From the evaluation of the total blocking value, it was found that the combination effect of nicotine with TEA or C6 was strongly potentiated while the combination effect of TEA and C6 was less than the addition of their values. It has been shown that nicotine did not affect the contraction responses to muscarinic substances injected to the superior cervical ganglion. These facts may indicate that the sites of action of nicotine at the late phase block are both the receptor site of the ganglion cell and the preganglionic terminals.
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  • MOTOHATSU FUJIWARA, CHIKAKO TANAKA, TAKASHI HONJO, TADAO OKEGAWA
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 369-377
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The localization of tissue noradrenaline in rat salivary glands has been studied by a fluorescence method for histochemical demonstration of catecholamines in combination with a pharmacological approach.
    In the submaxillary gland, noradrenaline fluorescence showed a fine network surrounding the secretory acini and the granular tubules, but there was no fluorescence in their cell bodies. The walls of arteries and arterioles were also surrounded by noradrenaline fluorescence but the intra- and interlobular excretory ducts were not. In the sublingual gland, noradrenaline fluorescence was present only in the walls of blood vessels and there was no fluorescence in the vicinity of the secretory acini and the excretory ducts. The localization of noradrenalide in the parotid gland was essentially similar to that of the submaxillary gland but somewhat weaker in intensity around the secretory acini. This indicates that the adrenergic innervation is predominant to the submaxillary and, to a lessor extent, parotid glands which are composed of serous cells and that there is no supply of adrenergic fibers to the mucous cells of the sublingual gland. The results of quantitative determination of noradrenaline with a biochemical method were well consistent with those of histochemical findings.
    In connection with the distribution of specific cholinesterase, the mode of double innervation of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers to the salivary glands are discussed.
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  • YOSHIHISA NAKAI, IZURU MATSUOKA, SHUJI TAKAORI
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 378-385
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of pentobarbital sodium, chloralose, urethane, ethyl alcohol, chlorpromazine and methamphetamine on the unitary discharges of the inferior colliculus in response to click stimuli were studied in encéphale isolé preparations of cats by means of the silver filled micropipette electrode technique.
    1. The typical collicular unitary discharges caused by click stimuli were observed when the tip of electrode was inserted at the depth of 1.8 to 4.0 mm from the dorsal surface of inferior colliculus. The evoked unitary discharges were consisted of two patterns of spikes : one of which appeared overlapping on the descending crus of the positive evoked potential (the early spike group) and the other appeared for 30 to 40 msec following the former one (the late spike group). The evoked unitary discharges were relatively stable for 1 to 2 hours and were not modified by the external stimuli.
    2. The small doses of the central depressants such as pentobarbital sodium (1-2 mg/kg), chloralose (20-40 mg/kg) and urethane (100-200 mg/kg) depressed the late spike group in number and amplitude without affecting the early spike group. However, large doses of pentobarbital sodium (above 10 mg/kg), chloralose (80-100 mg/kg) and urethane (above 500 mg/kg) abolished the late spike group accompanied with marked depression of the early spike group.
    3. The small doses of ethyl alcohol and chlorpromazine hardly affected both early and late spike groups of the collicular unitary discharges. Ethyl alcohol in doses above 800 mg/kg and chlorpromazine in dose of 20 mg/kg decreased the late spike group in number and amplitude.
    4. The small dose of methamphetamine (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) increased markedly number and amplitude of the collicular evoked unitary discharges.
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  • AKIRA SAKUMA, HITOSHI KATO, YOSHIAKI SAJI
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 386-394
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dimorpholamine in 1 to 4 mg/kg produced an epinephrine-like pressor effect in dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital, the response being reversed by pretreatment with an alpha adrenergic blocker. The pressor effect was often preceded by a transient hypotension with marked slowing of the heart beat which disappeared after bilateral vagotomy or administration of hexamethonium.
    The major part of the pressor effect disappeared following bilateral adrenalectomy, and was resistant to hexamethonium. The minor part seemed to be composed of direct vascular, cardiotonic and central actions.
    Dimorpholamine might be referred to as a catecholamine releaser and/or a non-nicotinic ganglion stimulant in a broad sense. This nature was evidenced in the experiments with dogs or cats, but not with rabbits or rats.
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  • YUICHI HASHIMOTO, SEIJI ISHII, YOSHIHIRO OHI, NOBUO SHIMIZU, REIJI IMA ...
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 395-400
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in the norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the hypothalamus and caudate nucleus were studied in reserpinized rabbits after administration of dopa. Injection of dopa into reserpinized rabbits caused a great increase in the dopamine content of the hypothalamus without any noticeable affect on the norepinephrine content. On the other hand, electron microscopic studies demonstrated the reappearance of granulated vesicles with dense cores in the hypothalamus after dopa injection. These findings suggest strongly that the granulated vesicles in the hypothalamus store dopamine as well as norepinephrine. The siginificance of the newly formed dopamine and the granulated vesicles are discussed.
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  • YUICHI HASHIMOTO, HELMUT LYDTIN
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 401-414
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    After hemorrhagic hypotension in dogs, myocardial norepinephrine synthesis and storage were apparently disturbed. Dibenzyline seemed to prevent death of animals subjected to hemorrhagic hypotension by causing a reduction in the bleeding volume. However, dibenzyline did not prevent a fall in arterial blood pressure during DOPA infusion after hemorrhagic hypotension. It is suggested that fundamental damage occurred during hemorrhagic hypotension, which caused the depletion of myocardial norepinephrine content, and also produced cardiovascular failure.
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  • AKIRA TSUJIMOTO, SHIRO TANINO, YUTAKA KUROGOCHI
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 415-422
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was demonstrated that intravenous administration of nicotine caused a transient increase in plasma potassium level which had a peak at 60 to 90 seconds and returned to the control level in 5 to 8 minutes in nembutal anesthetized dogs. The changes in serum potassium and blood glucose were proportional to the dose of nicotine. The hyperkalemia and hyperglycemia induced by 100 μg/kg of nicotine were almost completely inhibited by 3 mg/kg of hexamethonium. The pretreatment with atropine (2 mg/kg) slightly inhibited the hyperkalemic response but not the hyperglycemic response to nicotine. In adrenalectomizd dogs, the nicotine hyperkalemia was markedly less than in the normal, and disappeared with 2 mg/kg of atropine. The hyperkalemic response to 100 μg/kg of nicotine was a little greater than that of 2.5 μg/kg of adrenaline. Atropine abolished this difference of responses between to nicotine and to adrenaline. These results indicate that nicotine hyperkalemia is mainly mediated through a release of adrenaline from the adrenal gland and partially through the contraction of smooth muscle.
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  • AKIRA TSUJIMOTO, SHIRO TANINO, KENICHI KANIIKE, KEIICHI SETO, YUTAKA K ...
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 423-428
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experiments were undertaken to disclose the relation of hepatic release of potassium induced by adrenaline to glycogenolytic action.
    1. In fasted dogs hepatic glycogen concentration was markedly and phosphorylase level slightly lower than in normal dogs, whereas potassium concentration of liver, serum potassium and blood glucose concentrations were unchanged.
    2. Hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia and liver phosphorylase activation induced by adrenaline were reduced respectively by 58%, 40% and 35% in fasted dog as compared with normal dog.
    3. Increase in phosphorylase activity, reduction of potassium in the liver and increase in serum potassium occurred synchronously in rapid time course.
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  • HIROSHI ONO, KOROKU HASHIMOTO
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 429-440
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of 5-aminopentanoyl- (I), 6-aminohexanoyl- (II) and 7-aminoheptanoyl- (III) cholines and 6-aminohexanoy11-β-methylcholine chlorides on the neuromuscular junction were studied in dogs' and cats' tibial and gastrocnemius muscles.
    1. Compounds (II) and (III) have the same potency of neuromuscular blocking (one tenth potency of succinylcholine), compound (I) and, β-methyl analogue of (II) have one-fifth and one-two hundredth potency of compound (II).
    2. The induction and the restoration were very rapid. No so-called dual block phenomenon was observed.
    3. The initial facilitation of twitch, the fasciculation in the time of induction, the antagonism to d-Tc and the potentiation of N-M blocking by edrophonium, TMA, TPA and TBA were observed.
    4. The pattern of tetanic contraction, and the antagonism between ω-aminoacyl-cholines and TEA were similar to those in the case of d-Tc.
    5. β-Methyl analogue of compound (II) showed both antagonism and synergism to compound (II) in the different animals. The ratio of occurrence is fifty to fifty. This analogue showed also temporarily the stimulation of respiration and the increase of system is blood pressure in the intravenous administration. ω-Aminoacylcholines have the same pressor effect in almost same potency.
    6. The authors discussed the mechanism of these compounds in reference to the neuro-muscular blocking by d-Tc.
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  • AKIRA TSUJIMOTO, SHIRO TANINO, TSUTOMU NISHIUE, YUTAKA KUROGOCHI
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 441-443
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KIYOSHI SAKAI, MASATAKA FUSE, KENGO NAKAI
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 443-444
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • YUICHI HASHIMOTO, YOSHIHIRO OHI, REIJI IMAIZUMI
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 445-446
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KOZO KAJIKAWA, TADAO ITOH, YUICHI HASHIMOTO, HIROSHI YOSHIDA, REIJI IM ...
    1965 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 446-447
    Published: December 01, 1965
    Released: March 23, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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