In light of the fact that the transition from a quantitative expansion to a qualitative enhancement of community sports clubs is sought in both Japan and China, this research aimed to ascertain the applicability of the clubs′ organizational culture measurement scale, and clarify the characteristics of the organizational culture of community sports clubs in Japan and China. The survey was conducted via the leaving method with a total of 400 instructors from 10 clubs in Tokyo and Shanghai, and valid responses were obtained from 129 in Japan and 128 in China. The survey was conducted with the approval of the Juntendo University Ethics Review Committee. We validly measured with the scale using the survey items of Geert Hofstede, the leading figure in the field of international comparison of organizational cultures, in which we conducted exploratory factor analysis on the target (14 items), perception (5 items), and belief (10 items), and from which a scale of 12 items in total was extracted, including economic opportunity factor (target) 3 items, guidance opportunity factor (target) 3 items, realistic problem recognition factor (perception) 4 items, and ideological problem recognition factor (belief) 2 items. The validity of the four-factor structural scale was confirmed after conducting verifiable factor analysis. It′s interesting that, judging from the mean of the four factors, the instruction opportunity factor indicated high values in both Japan and China. And the value in China was obviously higher than that in Japan. Analysis of simultaneous multi-population by using structural equations modeling showed a positive influence from the realistic problem recognition factor to the economic opportunity factor, and from the ideological problem recognition factor to the guidance opportunity factor in Japan, whereas such results were not found in China. In addition, a positive impact from the ideological problem recognition factor to the economic opportunity factor was commonly found in both Japan and China.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the stakeholder management process at the pre-games training camps of a national team using PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge). Awaji city in Hyogo Prefecture, which accepted the pre-games training camps of the England national under-20 football team, was chosen as the case for this study. In this study, we conducted two step approaches. First, archival materials and documents were collected to identify the organization and personnel involved as the stakeholder in this project. In addition, we conducted a phone and mail survey for administrative personnel in Awaji city and Hyogo Prefecture. Second, we identified the most important stakeholder (project manager) of this project and conducted face-to-face interviews with the administrative staff in Hyogo Prefecture. Three researchers conducted comprehensive content analysis with the triangulation method, and we applied it to the four processes in the stakeholder management process; 1) launching, 2) planning, 3) practice, and 4) management / monitoring. The main results of this study were as follows. Fourteen project members and 11 organizations were identified as internal stakeholders. In order to continue to accept the pre-games training camps of national teams it is important; 1) to impress the partner country and team with “destination image”, 2) to ensure that each stakeholder coordinates with the project, and 3) to provide an environment for the “athlete first.” The findings also demonstrated that it is necessary to organize administrative documents, because many officials have been transferred often, and there were few documents about the information to be taken over. Furthermore, “place branding” such as regarding how to recognize the appeal of the camps area for the partner country and team, will also be an important viewpoint.