In customer satisfaction research, the disconfirmation paradigm has received tremendous support so far, although some researchers have identified several logical inconsistencies and there also have been some studies that have found that perceived performance exerted direct significant influence on satisfaction. There are two ways of measuring satisfaction based on disconfirmation; the subtractive approach(performance minus expectation) and subjective disconfirmation. The former has been shown to have statistical problems. As for the comparison standard of disconfirmation, pre-purchase expectation is used generally. In a fitness club, however, because of its long-term consumption style, present desire should be taken into account. The purposes of this study were, first to examine superiority of three scales: subjective disconfirmation of pre-purchase expectation, subjective disconfirmation of present desire, and perceived performance, and second to clarify their applications in measuring customer satisfaction in a fitness club. Data were collected from members of a fitness club in Nagoya. The members were divided into 3 groups randomly, and then questionnaire surveys were conducted for the 1st group by pre-purchase expectation, for the 2nd group by present desire, and for the 3rd group by perceived performance.The main results were as follows:1) There were no significant differences among explanation validity of 3 scales. The most important factor influencing overall satisfaction was "core service", in all scales, whereas the second factors varied according to the scales.2) Disconfirmation of pre-purchase expectation has effectiveness for under 6 months membership and perceived performance has effectiveness for over 1 year membership, whereas disconfirmation of present desire has effectiveness regardless ofmembership term. These results suggest that disconfirmation of pre-purchase expectation should be used for a club which is newly opened, disconfirmation of present expectation is suitable for all clubs which need to clarify improvement factors, and perceived performance is suitable for cases where we want to find characteristics of a club in comparison with others.
The concept of video clinic is to teach students to improve their skill and game through a cycle of sending video tapes to a coach in order to analyze and diagnose the performance. The coach then provides training programs for improvement, after which the student returns the video tapes. This coaching technique was applied in the field of tennis, and it was found to be a very effective way for each player to improve his skill or game and to develop his characteristic play.
The purpose of this study is to survey the historical formation of the sports insurance system in the Fundamental Sports Act of France and to examine the problems of this system. The evolution of this system is as follows :1) Creation of the sports insurance system by the Regulations of 1962.2) Development of license assurance.3) Insurance obligations of sports educators by the Act of 1963.4) Decision of 1966 by Conseil d'Etat.5) Influence of the Hardy case and controversies.6) Reform of the sports insurance structure by the Act of 1984.7) Decision of 1988 by the Council of Competition.8) Report of 1990 by the Social and Economic Council.9) Amendment of the Act of 1984 by the Act of 1992.
Evaluation of strength decreases of ski pole shafts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP shaft) caused by surface impact damage during skiing were investigated in both bending and post-buckling tests. Aluminum-alloy ski pole shafts (Al-alloy shaft) were also tested for comparison. Compared to non-damaged CFRP shafts, 50% decrease in bending fracture load and 80% decrease in post-buckling displacement were found after giving an impact load of about 1 joule to the surface of the shaft. This was assumed to be the amount given by actual collisions with ski plates during skiing. Observation by X-ray showed that the strength decrease was mainly caused by inner damage such as delamination of composite layers. On the other hand, the strength decrease of Al-alloy shaft was smaller. As with post-buckling, the compressive fracture occurred at the impact-damaged surface region in CFRP shafts, while in Al-alloy shafts conventional buckling fractures were observed. On the basis of results obtained, it was finally proposed that the tests employed in this study were suitable for estimating strength of CFRP shafts of ski poles.
The record in pole-vaulting has been improved by using flexible fiberglass poles. In analysis of the dynamics of pole-vaulting, it is necessary to consider the high flexibility of poles. This paper deals with the large deformations of poles subjected to concentrated loads at two supporting points. A simple combination model is introduced which consists of a mass (vaulter) and a pole. Analytical solutions in terms of elliptic integrals are derived for vertical and horizontal displacements. Furthermore, time progress of pole deformation is investigated. From the results, it is clarified that the initial conditions(e.g., vertical and horizontal velocities of the vaulter) and the applied bending moment play important roles.
Shoe traction has a great influence on running performance. Materials used in shoe soles have visco-elastic properties with strain-rate dependency. In previous studies concerning shoe traction, "Coloumb's friction theory" of contact between two rigid bodies has been used, however, this application has not been proper. In this study, the assumption that the appearance of slipping depends upon the stored energy in the sole/surface interface is proposed. The numerical estimation method of shoe traction, based on FEM considering the visco-elastic properties of shoes materials, is developed. The appropriateness of the numerical model is discussed by comparing experimental results. Using this model, the effects on traction of the constitutional parameters, midsole hardness, and outersole density are quantified. Furthermore, the application of the model to traction on wet surface is discussed.
In order to clarify the mechanism of ski turns and appropriate actions of skiers, it is necessary to study the relation between the joint motions of a skier and the reacting forces from the snow surface during skiing. A measuring system which consists of a goniometer for hip and knee joint angles and a six-force load cell placed between a ski and a boot has been developed. In this paper, three skiers who used this system were tested, and data were recorded about two kinds of short turn. Findings are summarized about joint actions and reacting forces from the snow surface in each turn.
In order to increase flying distance of golf balls and to improve controllability of flying trajectory of golf balls, a lot of developments in materials and designing of golf clubs are being made. A new type of golf club head-shell made of titanium alloy filled with compressed nitrogen gas is proposed. In this paper, experimental investigations of three kinds are made on the static and dynamic deformation of the pressurized head-shells and also on the restitution of balls. First, the elastic and plastic changes of volume of head-shells are measured by static pressure tests. Capacity to resist pres sure is also determined. Next, the relationships among the impact velocity, pressure of gas, and velocity of golf ball are investigated. Finally, transient strain histories on the crown face and sole face of the head-shells are measured by strain gauges under impact. Effects of the pressurized gas on the transient deformation of the head-shells are discussed by means of the frequency analysis of strain histories. As a result, we found that all of the head-shells were deformed elastically in a pressure range between 0MPa and 2MPa and that plastic deformation occurred for higher pressures than 2 MPa. One of the head-shells was cracked at approximately 7.4MPa. When the head-shells were pressurized, the velocities of golf ball, the strain histories on the face of the head-shells, and the frequency spectra of the strain histories were changed slightly.
After World War II, the GHQ (General Headquarters) reformed economic policies in Japan. The most important policy was the ban on pure holding companies. Holding companies have been banned by the Antimonopoly Law since the end of World War II to prevent a resurgence of conglomerates, such as the prewar and wartime "zaibatsu", which wielded huge financial power. But in the 1990's, thanks to the movements of deregulation under the recession and the global competition, many persons have come to support the existence of the holding company system in Japan. After a long period of the ban, under the revised Anti-monopoly Law, Japanese corporations have been allowed to set up holding companies since December 1997. This removal of the ban on the holding company system will activate the Japanese economy including the professional football clubs established in the 1990's. Their establishment synchronized with the start of the J. League (Japan Professional Football League). Most of the Japanese professional football clubs derive from companies'football clubs and the subsidiaries of big companies which are the operating parent companies. The big companies sponsor their football clubs in order to participate in the professional league. But being subsidiaries of operating companies, the Japanese football clubs can not realize the ideal of the J. League because of their status. The management of the football club is neither based on the community nor on the profession. The synergy with the operating parent company is not enough. If the holding company system is approved in Japan, Japanese professional football clubs will be able to take advantage of the flexible equity and the empowerment leadership of the management and solve the present problems.