Objective: Using a fitness club is one of the forms of leisure activity. The benefits individuals seek in using their free time are related to their choices of activities during leisure time. For the purpose of obtaining data which are useful for the promotion of the utilization of fitness clubs, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the benefit factors sought in leisure time and the fitness club experiences of individuals. Methods: Data from a “survey for the purpose of ensuring that the value of fitness clubs is correctly communicated to consumers” was utilized. The subjects of the analysis comprised 1,023 people, among whom 506 had no experience using fitness clubs, and 517 had experience using fitness clubs. Benefits sought during leisure time were measured using a leisure-time-benefit scale. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the presence or absence of fitness club membership experience as the object variable and items measuring awareness regarding leisure-related benefits as the explanatory variables. Results: Among those who responded to a question that enquired about “engaging in activities for the sake of one’ s health” and the benefits of leisure time, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio regarding whether people who had fitness club experience for those who answered “this applies to me,” taking the people who answered either “this does not apply to me” or “this neither particularly applies nor particularly does not apply to me” as a reference, was 2.13. Additionally, the adjusted odds ratio in relation to a question about “engaging in activities along with other people” was 1.37. Conclusion: There is a higher tendency for people who have used a fitness club to seek “engaging in activities to maintain one’ s health” and “engaging in activities with people” as a benefit of their leisure time, compared with people who have not used a fitness club.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects that occurred when the professional football (soccer) league changed its rules about broadcasting rights’ income distribution and made them more moderate than before. First, the values of the league games were divided to Team-Performance Value and Game-Performance Value. And then, the influences of the change of the rules were evaluated. As a result, numerical formulae showed that under some restricted conditions total values rose, following the change to moderation.
The Purpose of this paper is to clarify the competitive strategies of programs in recently established sports management graduate schools such as AISTS, University of Liverpool FIFA Master, MEMOS, Seoul National University and the Russian International Olympic University by comparing the differences in each of the business areas. This paper compares the categories of “Customer” , “Mission” , “Provides value” and “Cost structure” of the abovementioned institutions. As a result, the categories of “Mission” , “Provides value” and “Cost structure” of each program were found not to be significantly different across the institutions. On the other hand, the “Customer” category showed differentiation in each of the graduate programs. The results indicate that the graduate programs in this research field represent a relationship involving conflict in terms of managing graduate education programs to foster international sports managers. Despite this competitive strategy, competition between these institutions is avoided through differentiation of each institution’ s “customer” base.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the perceived benefits of walking, especially in regard to energy conservation, was related to daily physical activity. Participants (n=1,062) completed questionnaires assessing socio-demographic factors, walking time, and perceived benefits of walking consisting of 7 factors including energy conservation. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (AOR), 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) and P for linear trends. The adjusted odds ratios indicated that there was an association between walking time and perceived benefit of walking for energy conservation, suggesting that the perception of ecological sustainability might be effective for promoting physical activity.
It has been reported that injuries lead to psychological issues regarding human relationships while participating in sports. In particular, studies on the relationship between injured athletes and their teammates have reported that injured athletes perceive pressure from their teammates. In this study, we aimed to clarify the interpersonal recognition of injured athletes and their teammates. We conducted an investigation using a qualitative approach. Ninety-eight college student-athletes participated in this study, wherein an open-ended questionnaire was used. Written data were collected regarding the interpersonal cognition at the time of injury. The obtained data were categorized using the KJ method. According to the results, the cognition of a teammate regarding an injured athlete was categorized into 14 categories, such as “sympathy for the injured athlete” , “expected to return for the injured athlete” , “worry for the injured athlete” , “situational awareness of the injury” , and “opportunity to take the position of the injured athlete” . Additionally, the injured athlete’ s prediction of cognition of a teammate was categorized into 12 categories, such as “expected to return for the injured athlete” , “forced to return for the injured athlete” , “worry for the injured athlete” , “suspicion of injured athlete’ s sabotage” , and “disinterest toward the injured athlete” . From these results, it was suggested that teammates have cognition of worry and sympathy toward injured athletes, and they hope that injured athletes are cured and return to competition. In addition, it was observed that the injured athletes felt the cognition of peer-pressure in addition to the expectation of return from teammates. In the future, after collecting quantitative data, we need to examine it further by focusing on the difference between the cognition of injured athletes and their teammates.
Asian activities of the Japan Football Association (JFA) aim at co-existence and co-prosperity through active exchange of talent among Asian countries. However, there are various problems in the coaching environment, which have been more difficult than expected. This study investigated the state of the coaching environment of expatriate soccer coaches, based on the FIFA ranking of the country: higher, middle, and lower. The results indicated that the number of coaching staff members in both national and youth teams in Asian countries was much less than that in Japan. Moreover, the number of countries having football pitches was 17, that using pitches made of natural turf was 11, that having more than 2.5 pitches was 4, that using more than two pairs of goals was 7, that having pitches with the maximum seating capacity of over 300 was 5, that having pitches with lighting equipment was 12, and that having clubhouses was 13. If the competitive ability of the Japanese national team was regarding as 100%, the competitive abilities of the national teams of the Asian countries assessed by expatriate coaches were as follows: in higher ranking teams: skills 56.3%, tactics 49.4%, in middle ranking teams: skills 51.3%, tactics 30.0%, and in lower ranking teams: skills 33.8%, tactics 31.3%. The above results indicate that tactics of players in middle and lower FIFA ranking teams are very different from those of Japanese players.