Golfers choose their clubs according to their feelings. The impact sound of the club with a ball greatly affects such feelings. The golf associations in each country are enforcing rules that limit the performance of golf clubs. Therefore, attention is being paid to the quality of impact sound. The purpose of this research was to develop a CAE tool to help design golf clubs which have an agreeable impact sound. As for past research results, differences were found between "sound measured by experiment" and "sound calculated by program". The cause of the difference was that the program calculated only direct sound, while diffracted sound and reflected sound were not calculated. Therefore, in this study diffracted sound and reflected sound were calculated by using the Huygens-Fresnel principle. The practicability of this program was examined by use of a cylinder. Calculated surface velocity was compared with experimental values. They were found to be almost coincident. In the comparison of direct sound, the results also were almost coincident. But they have been found to be different when compared to results using the ear. This is because the identification of the modal damping ratio becomes difficult. In the comparison of diffracted sound and reflected sound, calculation accuracy is improved by using the Huygens-Fresnel principle. But comparison of results showed some differences because modal damping ratio error still occurs. Next, iron clubs without shafts were examined. Comparison of results showed differences at natural frequencies because the Finite Element Model is not so accurate.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived motivational climate and goal orientations among Japanese high school ice hockey players. One hundred eighty-five male ice hockey players completed questionnaires in their athletic season (mid-October) . Among the research items, the dependent variable was perceived motivational climate. The independent variables included goal orientations (task orientation and ego orientation) . Multiple regression analysis was utilized for examining the predictor of contemplation. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that the perceived motivational climate contained two higher-order scales (Task-Involving and Ego-Involving) , each with two subscales (Task : Cooperative and Important Role, Effort/Improvement; Ego: Unequal Recognition, Punishment for Mistakes) . Results of confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure of the motivational climate supported the validity of the oblique four-factor model and oblique hierarchical model. Multiple regression analysis revealed that Task-Involving climate alone positively predicted task orientation, while ego-involving climate didn’ t emerge as significant. In addition, the analysis indicated that the Task-Involving climate and the Ego-Involving climate were significant predictors of ego orientation. These results indicate that a perceived motivational climate may influence goal orientations. Therefore, it would be important for youth sport coaches to understand their athletes’ perceptions of the motivational climate
This study investigated body awareness as an affect determinant of university students based on the behavior changes of their exercise situation. The survey was conducted with 403 students from private universities (229 men, 174 women ; at age 19.1±2.5 years) in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The survey contents assessed behavior changes for exercise, and body awareness of that affect. The findings were as follows : (1) Body awareness differed according to the behavior changes in exercise. (2) The students who had high body awareness expressed positive affect when they recalled the exercise situation. (3) It is necessary to choose a strategy that considers behavior changes in exercise and body awareness, even when using a cognitive strategy for exercise adherence.
The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the Japanese sports industry by using the sports quotient, in the context of economic conditions after 1993. The sport quotient decreased with the sluggishness in the Japanese economy, and has shown a tendency to recover in recent years. The center of sports consumption replaced “Goods” with “Service” . The older and higher-income people also spent money for sports. The factor of the recovery of the sport quotient is that professional sports teams in the region increased and that the health trend of older and higher-income people rose. The agenda of the Japanese sports industry reveals that the sports consumption of younger and lower-income people has decreased. The necessity of suggesting measures and policies that can increase the sports participation of younger people was suggested so that the sports industry of Japan of the future might develop.
It has been said that Team Identification has consistency. However, there has been no study that proves the consistency of Team Identification. The purpose of this study was to measure the Team Identification of fans at all home games (17 games) in 2009 of Club A, which belonged to the Japan Football League, and test for consistency. As a result of measuring Team Identification of 40 members of Club A′s Fan Club during the 17 games, and comparing it, there were no statistical significances between each of the matches. In addition, as a result of measuring the Team Identification of spectators at the first match and the final match of Club A′s home games (first match : N=101, final match : N=113) , and comparing these results, there were no statistical significances between the matches. In this study, we measured Team Identification of a professional soccer club’ s fans and found that there were no statistical significances between the matches.
This study defines the students who have continuously belonged to a sports club built systematically in the school constitution as “TAIIKUKAIKEI” students, and clarifies when and how this idea came into being and the common understanding that “TAIIKUKAIKEI” students could be regarded as more favorable human resources than the other students in job hunting in Japan. The document sources are mainly gathered from articles in the business magazine ‘JITSUGYOU NO NIHON’ , that was circulated widely from the end of the Meiji era to the beginning of the Showa era. The results are summarized as follows. At the beginning of the Taisho era, the idea or consciousness of “TAIIKUKAIKEI” had not existed yet, but there was a belief that it was necessary to have a robust body in order to survive the competition of society. In the middle of the Taisho era, behind the growing enthusiasm for sports, people became conscious that lots of executives of big companies had been “TAIIKUKAIKEI” and it had the media values of : (1) advertisement and (2) prevention of being left in remote colonial places, and so it was observed that “TAIIKUKAIKEI employment” was coming into being. By the end of the Taisho era, reflecting the excessive emphasis on academic attainments in recruiting, “TAIIKUKAIKEI employment” came to be established. Afterwards, at the beginning of the Showa era, the process of distinguishing between "Professional” and “Amateur” became clearer and the latter became dominant over the former in “TAIIKUKAIKEI employment” , and sportsmanship became a more important element in composing a useful body. In the days when the labor movement was growing radically in response to the depression, ideological problems such as alerting to Marxists, leftists, and communists were supposed to be social issues. In this context, the students with physical and mental problem-this study named them “KYOYOKEI” in contrast to “TAIIKUKAIKEI” -received negative images and seemed to have been shunned by companies. At the same time, because the “TAIIKUKAIKEI” had not changed anything, they were understood to have a moderate ideology and to be more important from the viewpoint of employment.
The purpose of this study was to develop a Social Support Scale for Sports and to clarify the differences in evaluations of social support according to differences in the frequency of participation in sports. The survey was carried out by a questionnaire mailed to 5,000 people aged 18 and over, randomly selected from the Basic Resident Register in “city A” . Using factor analysis, 2 factors were extracted : “instrumental support” and “emotional support.” The results showed that both factors’ social support scores showed higher values as the participation in sports became more frequent. The results suggest that the Social Support Scale for Sports has validity for sports.
PURRPOSE : The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived goal orientations and generalized-self-efficacy (GSE) among Japanese collegiate ice hockey players. METHODS : Two hundred and sixty-one male ice hockey players of the Eastern University League responded to a questionnaire during their athletic season. The survey included questions regarding the goal orientations in sport (task orientation and ego orientation) , perceived GSE, and years of ice hockey experience. The participants were divided into four groups based on the median of years of ice hockey experience and goal orientation scores. ANOVA (years of experience × goal orientation) was conducted to examine whether the goal orientations were related to GSE in each of the groups. RESULTS : In the longer experience group, ANOVA revealed that the higher-task -orientation group scored significantly higher GSE than the lower-task-orientation group. In contrast, there were no significant differences of GSE between the higher-ego-orientation group and the lower-ego-orientation group. Similar findings were observed in the shorter experience group. CONCLUSIONS : These results demonstrated that perception of task orientation in sport may be associated with GSE. However, this study only examined the relationship between the goal orientations and GSE. Thus, for future research, a longitudinal study focusing on actual behavior/experience in sport and daily life would be needed for confirming the relationships found in this study.
Purpose : To understand the factors associated with the initiation and maintenance of strength training among older people, a qualitative approach would be useful. The purpose of the present study was to explore the initiation processes involved in strength training, and the facilitators and barriers to maintain strength training among people aged 60-74 years. Methods : Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 members of a sports club. The interview consisted of questions related to initiation processes, facilitators, and barriers of strength training. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and categorizations were conducted. Results : The initiation processes consisted of “coping with physical inactivity or health problems,” “encouragement from others,” “increase in leisure time,” “feeling good program,” “interests in physical activity,” and “enjoyment of other sports,” The common categories between facilitators and barriers were “physical factors,” “psychological factors,” “social factors,” and “environmental factors.” In addition, “daily life factors” and “other factors” were categorized as facilitators, and “uncontrollable factors” were categorized as barriers. Discussion : These results indicate that 1) the initiation of strength training would be associated with interests in health problems and physical activity, increase of leisure time, encouragement from others, or presence of a good program, and that 2) the maintenance of strength training would be associated with environmental factors and daily life factors as well as physical and psychosocial factors.
The purpose of this study was to identify the sport events-for example games, representative trials, and official events for recording official times-that were discontinued and postponed due to Great East Japan earthquake. To achieve this purpose, we gathered information from articles and homepages of sports associations regarding damaged stadiums and training grounds. As a result, we found that there were big influences on women′s professional golf, soccer, baseball, figure skating, volleyball, marathon, basketball, horse racing, cycle races, and motorboat races. These results suggested that there were a lot of negative influences on sports promotions caused by cancellation of TV broadcasts, and on fund raising caused by decrease of income from sponsors, ticket sales, and broadcasting rights. We hope that this study’ s results will help in the recovery from the large-scale earthquake disaster.
It is important to clarify the impact of competition among J-League clubs on the distance decay parameters of season ticket purchase rate for J-clubs marketing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the distance decay parameters of J-league season ticket purchase rate and the other competing clubs when two clubs are located close together, using the distance decay model. All of the respondents were J-League season ticket holders of four clubs: theYokohama F·Marinos, Shonan Bellmare, Gamba Osaka and Cerezo Osaka. Postal code were collected in 2008 January. Season ticket purchase rate and the distance between each stadium and center of cities were calculated using geographic information system. Through the distance decay model, we estimated the distance decay parameters. The results of the present study suggested that the season ticket purchase rates of the higher performance clubs are widely distributed (distance decay slope is gentle) , while the season ticket purchase rates of the lower performance clubs are precipitously distributed (distance decay slope is steep) . In conclusion, it is possible that the distance decay parameters of J-League season ticket purchase rates are affected by the existence of other competing when two clubs are located close together.
Sprinters adjust the arrangement of their starting blocks prior to a race, but there is no clear standard for arranging the blocks. It is unclear at present how the arrangement changes the forces applied to the blocks and consequently affects performance coming off them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the arrangement of the starting blocks on the forces applied to them. Forces applied by a sprinter to the front and the rear starting block as well as to the ground on the first step were measured using three force platforms for 18 different arrangements of block spacing. The results indicated that the amount of the impulse applied in starting posture to both the front and rear starting blocks changed little between the 18 arrangements. Likewise, no substantial change occurred in the forces applied to the ground on the first step. However, as the distance between the front and rear blocks changed, the ratio of the impulse applied to the front and rear blocks changed: as the block spacing was increased, the impulse applied to the front block during starting posture decreased while that at the rear block increased. In addition, changing the distance from the starting line to the front block influenced the relation between the block spacing distance and the forces applied to the two starting blocks.
The aim of the present report was to analyze the primary factors for implementation of a “strength conditioning exercise class” and to introduce a process for promotion of health and preventive care. Kita-ku, Tokyo, planned a “strength conditioning exercise class” in order to promote the health status of elderly residents and to reduce their health care costs. The characteristic factors for the program were the following ; 1) classroom naming, 2) participation procedures, conditions and costs, 3) leader, 4) program contents, 5) assembly hall secured. The numbers of the annual participants increased from 4,828 in 2002 to 52,623 in 2009 according to the increase of the venues and the budget. In addition to the suitable naming, the free participation fee, the free reservations, and other factors reduced the participation barriers for the elderly residents. The present case provides information on business planning for local governments in promoting the health status of elderly residents.
The present case study evaluated an environment-focused project for promoting walking, which included the development of walking courses (using public spaces, parks, roads) with stations for smart cards in the community and an interfaced internet-based self-monitoring system. The project was started in 2008 in Misato City of Saitama Prefecture. In this project, individuals can participate by paying a registration fee (500 yen) and obtaining their own cards. If registrants walk the course, holding their cards over a scanner at 3-4 stations, the smart card records their data (e.g. distance and time spent in walking) from one to the other station and transfers these to a self-monitoring system. As a result, registrants could check their data online. From June 2008 to November 2009, a total of 631 individuals (62% female) who obtained the information from newspaper, magazines, website, or some local events, registered for this project. From walking data collected automatically in the database through the self-monitoring system, it was found that 445 registrants (63% female) used this system at least once, and most of the registrants were 40 years old or more. This suggests that the project in this study might have been effective in promoting walking only among older people. Also, most of the registrants lived around the courses. In particular, the courses in the area surrounded by beautiful nature and residential areas were often used. To expand this idea to other age groups, new attempts, including a point supplying system based on the distance of walking are under development.
In 2005, the bj-League, the first professional basketball league in Japan, was established on the three principles of professionalism, sports entertainment and globalization & community. The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors of spectator-sport products based on Kotler’ s theory concerning structured products, and to clarify the factors related to the spectators’ satisfaction. The data was collected through questionnaires distributed to 1,000 people (843 effective answers) who attended a franchise game of Osaka Evessa belonging to the bj-League. The procedure of this study was, first, to locate the factors of product evaluations at Kotler’ s product-levels, and second, to identify which factors affected the spectators’ satisfaction by using multiple regression analysis. Seven factors were identified by using factor analysis. They were: ‘enjoyment of watching the game,’ which was presumed to be a factor of Core Benefit, ‘fascination of bj-League,’ and ‘amenity of the stadium,’ which were presumed to be Generic Products, and ‘local consciousness projected through the team’ and ‘pleasant entertainment,’ which were presumed to be Expected Products, and ‘charm of character goods’ and ‘ease of getting tickets,’ which were presumed to be Augmented Products. As results, it was found that the spectators’ satisfaction was mainly affected by the two factors which were not ‘pleasant entertainment’ but, rather, ‘local consciousness projected through the team’ and ‘enjoyment of watching the game.’ It might be suggested that the spectators didn’ t expect entertainment so much from the bj-League.
This paper introduces the "Masters Classic" tennis event and discusses it from the viewpoint of sports promotion.   As a result of studying this event, the possibility of "spectator tennis" was suggested. At the same time, the importance of non-compelled management and continuing examination of this event in planning a strategy for the future and for making improvements were pointed out. Moreover, the necessity of deciding on a suitable admission fee was confirmed.
This paper presents a comparative institutional analysis of the endogenous and self-enforcing system of “Japanese company sports” and examines the characteristics of the design and problems of its transitions. The remarkable feature of the institutional design of Japanese company sports in the sports domain is the “institutional complementarity” with Japanese-style employment practices in the company domain, mediated by the company athletes who play games simultaneously as athletes in sport domain and as employees in the company domain. Such institutional interdependencies between two different domains also provide managerial resources to the National Sports Federation or top-league organization and greatly affect its institutional design. Thus, we can understand the company sports as an endogenous and self-enforcing equilibrium outcome of the game in both domains. Because of this institutional complementarity, Japanese company sports can’ t be easily changed, according to what is known in Comparative Institutional Analysis as the “inertia” . For example, it is difficult to dismiss an employee who is a company athlete under the Japanese-style employment practice. However, in recent years, because of the slow economic growth and decreasing corporate profits, combined with the decreasing merits of Japanese-style employment practices, the benefit of company sports in the context of labor management has decreased significantly. By considering these factors, a transition to an alternative system of professional or community sport is planned. However, one issue involved with this transition is that although company sports bring great benefits, the transition involves risk for the athletes, as they must rebuild their careers in some way. The second issue is that for company sports, which are at the center of company costs, independent management as well as intellectual and personal management resources are not combined. The third issue is the adjustment of complementarity with the existing systems during transition.
The purpose of the present article was to describe the process of developing and implementing a pelvis exercise program for mothers in the Child-Rearing Service Center operated by the local government of Abiko City, Japan. After assessment of a trial event, the present program, which was aimed to satisfy the mother’ s needs, was developed and carried out three times. As a result, the number of the users of the center showed the highest value among each month (T-score 76-94) . The program would have possibilities not only for developing pelvis alignment, but also for enhancing communication among the mothers in the center.