The purpose of this study was to clarify the subjective feelings of athletes wearing sunglasses while playing sports, using mixed methods research. In Study I, we conducted a free-answered survey, using 50 athletes (Mage ＝ 30.6, SD ＝ 6.6) to clarify subjective feelings of athletes wearing sunglasses while playing sports. Judging from the words of the athletes, data regarding “Physical feelings” (lessening straining of eyes, lessening sensory temperature, fostering performance, improving judgment speed, lessening overstraining, improving visibility, lessening wind effect, preventing drying eyes, and preventing foreign matters entering eyes), and “psychological feelings” (fostering concentration, switching a mood, enhancing motivation, lessening stress, feeling calm, and having psychological distance from others) were extracted. Next, in Study 2, we formed questionnaire items to assess the degree of subjective feelings of wearing sunglasses while playing sports and obtained the responses from 450 athletes (Mage ＝ 21.5, SD ＝ 6.7). We compared the subjective feelings between sports events (track and field, golf, baseball, and tennis). Results showed that track and field athletes scored higher in psychological feelings than baseball and tennis players did. We concluded that there are physical and psychological feelings of athletes regarding wearing sunglasses during sports, and that feelings about wearing sunglasses differ according to the sports events the athletes engage in.
In this study, data based on resources available for public access were collected from 138 sports universities throughout the country in Japan in order to quantitatively grasp the ways in which curricula are being implemented. The aim of the study was to reveal the characteristics of the existing curriculum organizations in these universities. The results showed that in 25% of the departments, the subjects and courses related to sports did not provide students with the opportunity to learn about sports management as part of the curriculum. Even when sports management was studied, only 25% offered lectures on the subject, clearly indicating that such curricula are not intended for the development of the human resources of those who would become assets in the field. However, in curricula that incorporated the study of sports management, over 70% used lectures and seminars and they most often took the form of a synthesized curriculum, which moves between theory and practice through multiple lectures and seminars. When we looked at the various departments, we realized that multiple lectures and seminars form the core of the curriculum organization for many of them. Nonetheless, we clarified that in the departments of economics and management, lectures on subjects related to economics and management are compulsory. In curriculum organization, the relevance of one subject in relation to others must be taken into consideration. Moreover, the relationship between lectures (theory) and seminars (practice) is of great significance. Therefore, a future task would be to analyze what individual classroom practice involves and to examine the links between the various classes.
The aim of this study was to investigate the performance pathways that elite swimmers followed in the process of becoming Olympians, as experienced by 19 Japanese representatives who qualified for individual events at the Rio 2016 Olympics, and to find patterns of performance development in each swimmer. All participants completed a questionnaire that included a modified version of the Athlete Development Triangle, featuring the junior and senior performance experience and progressions. Four performance pathway patterns were identified for both male and female swimmers: frontier, revival, elite development, and late bloomer. These results could serve as a guideline for talent development for future elite swimmers.