Today, college sport is attracting attention in Japan. However, the number of college athletes has not been clarified by an organization like the NCAA. The purpose of this study was to clarify the number of college athletes and to grasp the situation of the competition groups. The research target was the 33 competitions to be held at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. The research method was quoted from the website and used telephone and email. The study clarified the number of college athletes participating in 23 competition groups in 33 competitions. In addition, it was clarified that the number of college athletes has been on the rise. The results of this study are considered to be new findings in the field of college sport.
In this study, we examined organizational responses to the commercialization of high school sporting events. Based on press releases and information obtained from the High School Athletic Federation, we analyzed the social factors that influenced the decisions of the federation, which focuses on summer high school sporting events and has comprehensively unified such events in a move toward commercialization. Results have revealed that the commercialization of high school sporting events, led by the All Japan High School Athletic Federation, has been accompanied by organizational responses such as the introduction of corporate and bib sponsorship and foundation incorporation (including incorporation into public foundations). Since the implementation of sponsorship funding in 1993, interscholastic athletic events’ operating expenses have been party financed by private companies. In 2001, the organization’s focus changed from volunteering to providing an environment that facilitates organizational responses and the receipt of sponsorship funds. In 2009, a bib sponsor with a strong business background was introduced on a trial basis, and interscholastic athletic events were finally established in 2010 by expanding the range of activities.
Sensory experience in stadiums and arenas seems to play an important role in sport consumer behavior. However, little attention has been paid to the sensory experience of spectators in sport management. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between sensory experience, team loyalty, and revisit intention. Data were collected from 473 spectators at a professional basketball game in Japan. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to confirm the construct validity of the scale. The result of structural equation modeling indicated that sensory experience (e.g. sight and sound) has a positive effect on team loyalty. Moreover, significant sequential relationships between sensory experience (e.g. sight and sound), team loyalty, and revisit intention were found. The results indicated the importance of spectators’ sensory experience on sport consumer behavior. Therefore, it is suggested that team and league marketers should develop their strategies to maximize the sensory experience of spectators.
This study looked at former college tennis players who were successful at the national level in Japan, with the goal of identifying the interpersonal skills of life skills they acquired through their sporting activities. Semi–structured interviews were conducted with nine subjects. The interview content was compiled as text data that were then used for qualitative analysis. The results were used to establish 17 sub–categories of meaning units related to personal growth processes for individual skill improvement and problem–solving. Finally, five categories were created: “expression of intent,” “consideration for others’ feelings,” “meetings,” “performance of roles,” and “contribution to the organization.” As a result, it became clear that these five categories are the life skills the subjects acquired. It was presumed that since subjects worked as a team to achieve common goals with their fellow team members, the acquisition of the three life skills “expression of intent,” “consideration for others’ feelings,” and “meetings” encouraged good communication, exerting an influence on acquisition of the life skills “performance of roles” and “contribution to the organization.” Also, it appeared that the acquisition of the life skills “performance of roles” and “contribution to the organization” served to strengthen other–oriented motivation for competition and that this exerted a favorable influence upon players’ performance.
For the purpose of acquiring new users of public sports gyms during the weekday daytime, this study aimed to explore the barriers to using gyms. A questionnaire survey was conducted at a public sports complex with a gym. The subjects included participants in weekly sports and fitness lesson programs who had no experience using gyms (NO-EXPERIENCE, n=300) and those who were nonusers with experience using gyms (NONUSER, n=149). To clarify the characteristics of the subjects, regular gym users during weekday daytime were set as a comparison group (USER, n=83). The percentages of females in the NO-EXPERIENCE, NONUSER, and USER groups were 46%, 91%, and 37% (significantly low) respectively; 60 years of age or older: 46%, 52%, and 42%; those who were very inactive in daily life: 5% (significantly low), 12%, and 13%. Regarding the important reasons for doing sports and exercise, comparing NO-EXPERIENCE and NOUSER to USER, the percentage of “maintaining/improving physical fitness” (78%, 76%, 55%), “relieving stress” (45%, 49%, 17%) and “pleasure in the spare time” (28%, 30%, 10%) were significantly higher, but “maintaining/improving strength and endurance” (54%, 48%, 53%) was not significant. Regarding the barriers to using gyms, comparing NO-EXPERIENCE to NOUSER, the percentage of “somehow hesitant” (42% to 21%) and “not interested” (19% to 3%) were significantly higher, and that of “congestion” (24% to 47%) was significantly lower. Among the two groups, the percentage of “do not know how to use the equipment” was high (NO-EXPERIENCE: 31%, NONUSER: 29%), and those of “not fun” and “fear of injury” were low (NO-EXPERIENCE: 6%, 2%, NONUSER: 9%, 2%). The dissatisfaction with trainers and the difficulty to continue exercise at a gym alone were found in NONUSER’s comments. Considering these results, it is suggested that a small group lesson program at gyms could be an effective plan.
In Japan, the UNIVAS (Japan Association for University Athletics and Sport, the nation-wide organization for governing intercollegiate sport in Japan) was established in March, 2019, and since then student-athletes have become required to balance between academics and athletics (A/A balance). However, it is unknown the degree to which this consciousness exists at this stage. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship among student-athletes’ profile/achievement, their consciousness of A/A balance, and their expectation for those advantages in relation to the new graduate job market (i.e., Student-athlete Premium, SAP). We conducted a questionnaire survey with 3,556 student-athletes who had come to joint job fairs or events held 6 times during the spring of 2019 (from the end of January until the middle of March) by the Athlete Planning Co., Ltd., which has supported student-athlete career development as a business for over a decade in Japan. After data cleaning, 1,299 student-athletes who were engaged in team sports (male: 929; female: 370) were subjected to statistical analysis. It was revealed that the variables associated with consciousness of A/A balance and expectation for SAP were significantly diverse, and influenced by gender and by both academic and athletic performance/achievement during their college days. However, those dispersions were correlated with neither the college’s/university’s prestige nor the student-athletes’ way of admission, which means they had not been determined before becoming college athlete.