This paper proposes a measurement system and computation method for 3D motion analysis in sports. The measurement system that consists of inertial and magnetic field sensors is able to measure 3-axis angular velocity, 3-axis acceleration and 3-axis magnetic field. We can easily perform the experiment in sports because this system is directly attached to the body. Introducing the sensor fusion algorithm using Kalman filter, we can avoid storage error by the drift of the gyro sensor. The computation method provides the angles by compensation of centrifugal and tangential acceleration and sensor fusion. In order to confirm the accuracy of this proposed system and computation method, we compared the value obtained by this system with the value obtained by a rotary encoder. It was found that the measurement system and computation method provided the accurate value. It is shown that the proposed method can be used for motion analysis in sports.
The purpose of this paper is to report on a ski instruction system using augmented reality (AR) technology that can display animated model demonstrations and give advice with an artificial voice in real time while the user is skiing. For this system, student skiers are equipped with a mobile computer and a head-mounted display (HMD) with a video camera and earphones. The HMD shows an image of the skier’ s forward field of vision as captured by the video camera. This system uses markers positioned along the ski slope in place of the poles (gates) that show the skier which direction to turn. When the video camera on a turning skier captures a marker, the system displays instructions on the HMD in real time with AR technology. These instructions are in the form of a CG-animated virtual instructor that gives a model demonstration, virtual poles and flags, arc-shaped arrows to clearly show the turn direction, arrows mimicking force vectors to give instructions on weight transfer, and advice given with an artificial voice. We have confirmed that the system displays such instructions appropriately on an actual test run.
Most researches on sports spectators have concentrated on how to increase spectating frequencies and they have conducted surveys only on sports spectators. The potential spectator market was reported to be 39.3%, which is equivalent to the actual Japan’ s spectators’ market. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on potential spectators. In the Behavioral Science domain one of the most effective models is the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change (TTM) , which can be applied to various behaviors. The present study examined the application of the TTM to sports spectating behavior, especially in the case of several ball games held in a top sports league. In particular, questionnaires were administered to adults aged 20-69 to assess the reliability and validity of the stages of change for the sports spectating behavior scale. In study I, (reliability test) , data collected from 166 adults through the internet showed a good reliability among the 2-week test-retest [Kappa Index (κ) =.67] . Then, in study II, (validity test) , the relationship between the stages of behavioral changes of sports spectating and the degree of self-reported sports spectating behavior (the annual length of spectating time, intention of spectating) was investigated among adults in A city. The results revealed that sports spectating behavior significantly differentiated among the stages of change. Specifically, participants in the post-adoption stages (preparation, action, and maintenance) reported a significantly greater amount of annual sports spectating time compared to those in pre-adoption stages (pre-contemplation and contemplation) . Moreover, participants in pre-contemplation stages reported a significantly lower score in intention of spectating compared to those in other stages. The TTM, originally developed for various behaviors such as healthy and unhealthy ones, can be generalized for use in evaluating sports spectating behavior.
The purpose of this literature review study was to summarize the findings of researches on comprehensive community sports clubs in Japan, based on the Sports Promotion Basic Plan since September, 2000, and to suggest the research subjects in the future. 93 researches done after September 2000 were extracted by using the Research Database Cinii (http : //ci.nii.ac.jp/) and divided into 6 categories. 1. Researches on club management (1) Researches on the processes of club establishment/promotion (2) Researches on club management (3) Researches on significant programs/activities (4) Researches on needs of local residents/club members 2. Researches on meanings of clubs (1) Researches on functions/effects of clubs (2) Description of club activities The most important point to establish/promote comprehensive community sports clubs successfully was explained as “bridging the channels” , which meant making the connections between comprehensive community sport clubs and government, between the new clubs and existing associations, or between participants. The previous studies were conducted from limited viewpoints such as sociology/business administration studies, but the future subjects should be conducted from a psychological/philosophical point of view. Moreover, there should be more qualitative researches on comprehensive community sports clubs. A possible reason for the previous limitations was that the previous researches were based on the presupposition of necessity to establish those clubs, so that failures/difficulties/troubles were not described adequately. Qualitative researches, such as case studies, field works or ethnographic researches, can give accounts of the realities in comprehensive community sports clubs.
The purpose of this study was to consider the problem of rubber baseball in each administrative division, and to suggest the direction of developments in the future. In regard to rubber-ball baseball in the area of Tochigi and Gifu, which does not have a large city, results were obtained which had sufficient balance among six indices. It is suggested that it is necessary to introduce a system that collects fees based on an individual registration system in order to strengthen the financial ground of the sport.
In this research we aimed to find out the effect of professional baseball teams on the attendance of J. League clubs. We conducted a regression analysis of the dates of attendance. The dependent variable was the number of spectators per game. In the selection of independent variables, we added 2 baseball variables ( “Baseball game” and “Baseball team franchise” ) to the variables used in existing literature and extracting 16 independent variables. As a result of regression analysis we found that “Baseball game” had a negative effect on attendance of J. League clubs, and “Baseball team franchise” did not have an effect on it.
The purpose of this study was to examine barriers to spectator behavior among tennis participants in order to increase the number of participant spectators in tennis. We focused on two big tennis tournaments in Japan to clarify this. We extracted barriers to spectator behavior by qualitative methods, and then analyzed the degree of these barriers by statistical methods. As a result, the main findings are summarized as follows: 1) Barriers to spectator behavior among tennis participants consist of “Time” , “Distance” , “Lack of information” , “Absence of cynosure players” , “Cost” , “Unaccompanied” , “Partner” , “Child” , “TV” , “Lack of intention and interest” . 2) “Time” is the largest barrier to spectator behavior among tennis participants, so the tactic of changing the time of main events from daytime to nighttime could be effective. Additionally, “Lack of information” and “Cost” were relatively large barriers to spectator behavior in tennis participants, so marketers need to distribute discount tickets that also promote informational purposes.