The purpose of this paper is to summarize the trends in research on emotion in sports spectators' behavior, and to determine how research on emotion in consumer behavior might be applied to this field. A review of research on the behavior of sports spectators makes clear that the role of emotion has largely been neglected. Research on consumer behavior, on the other hand, has frequently focused on emotion, including the emotions of consumers towards advertisements on television and in print, when choosing or purchasing a product, and when using a product or receiving a service. Moreover, it is clear that in most models of consumer behavior, emotion has played an important role. The following conclusions, then, can be drawn: 1) There is much research on emotion that can be done in order to more fully understand the mechanisms of sports spectators' behavior. 2) Research on emotion in other fields can be applied to research on the emotions of sports spectators. 3) Future research should aim to develop a scale that can measure the emotions of sports spectators, and to use this scale in constructing a model of sports spectator behavior that incorporates the concept of emotion.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the formation process of the sporting-goods industrial structure by investigating what kind of sporting-goods industrial organization has been established under the legal system concerned with the organization of the small - to medium - sized enterprises since of Japan' s postwar reconstruction, and to explain the historical significance of this process. This study analyzed articles of 'Nihon Undogu Shinpo', which is a sporting-goods trade newspaper first published in Japan from 1948 to 1956, by using the historical research method. First, the postwar reconstruction of the sporting-goods business was started by the establishment of sporting-goods manufacture industrial organizations, classified by the production materials of leather, lumber, metal and fiber. Sporting-goods makers had to unite as an organization, in order to supply good quality sporting-goods immediately. Although the organization which managed the distribution of gymnastics and sports materials under the wartime economy control policy was abolished in 1948, this required a new system which could assume the role of adjustment of the demand and supply for sporting-goods. While sporting-goods wholesale organizations were born as a result, and they were aimed at the adjustment of relations between the sporting-goods manufacturers and the sporting-goods retailers, these developments had a strong influence on both. Although economic controls were eased after 1949, a high commodity tax was still imposed on sporting-goods. In order to get rid of such a situation, a new organization which unified makers, wholesalers and retailers concerned with sporting-goods was founded. This organization developed an active political campaign for the abolition of the economic controls and the unification of the whole sporting-goods industry. Thus, there were both cooperation and resistance in regard to the postwar economic policy in the establishment of a sporting-goods industrial organization. It is a notable feature of Japan' s sporting-goods industry structure that the sporting-goods wholesale industry was able to manage the adjustment of these two sides.
This paper describes how to evaluate sports skill in a scientific manner. The measurement system based on the use of a three-dimensional gyro sensor and kinematics, as presented by the authors, provides accurate information on golf driver swing form. The criteria expressed linguistically by internationally famous golf players are quantitatively given by data obtained by the measurement system mentioned above. The measurement system, thus showed the possibility that golf skill can be quantitatively evaluated.