The purpose of this paper is to catch a glimpse of the theoretical subject of club business management by analyzing ticket sale. Now, ticket sale has made little increase globally. When a club manager has a short view, he will regard relatively the ticket market as the market maturization. The club manager will not concentrate his attention on ticket sale in which he cannnot desire big sales. On the other hand, when, a club manager has a long view, he notices the market of all business of the club turning into the market maturization soon. He will regard the ticket market as the strategic market for preparing the problem solution of the future. In this case, the focus of the strategy will be on to cut down cost rather than to expand sales. Since one-to-one marketing is suitable for cost reduction, a club manager will adopt it. However, in addition, one-to-one marketing contains the problem.
Involvement has become one of the widely used constructs in the study of consumer behavior. It also is receiving considerable attention in leisure and sports literature. The purpose of this study is to develop a Japanese Invlovement Profile scale in the context of sport, and to provide several tests related to its discriminative power, reliability and validity. A pool of 15 items from Dimanche's IP instrument was translated into Japanese and modified for asking questions about sports in general. The scale consisted of 5 dimensions : IMPORTANCE, PLEASURE, SIGN, RISK CONSEQUENCE and RISK PROBABILITY. Each of these facets was com posed of 3 item questions. A total of 418 students from two women's college par ticipated in the questionnaire survey. The results of this study are as follows :1) Over 90% of respondents selected valid answers for all IMPORTANCE and PLEASURE items. Likewise all SIGN items but one yielded valid answers. However, the numbers of respondents selecting "Don't know" were relatively high for both Risk facets, accounting for more than 10% of the response.2) Discriminative power was tested by Good-Poor analysis at item-total and item-facet levels. Item-total level analysis revealed that all items met the criterion and item-facet level analysis, confirming that all items met the standard, except for one item of the RISK PROBABILITY.3) IMPORTANCE, PLEASURE and SIGN facets successfully met standards for intermal consistency, and criterion-related validity, while the other two facets failed to met the internal consistency standard. These results suggest that IMPORTANCE and PLEASURE items are suited for practical use. One item in SIGN facet needs minor modification in wording. RISK CONSEQUENCE and RISK PROBABILITY items are subject to further investigation. Limitations of this study and implications for future research were also discus sed.
Windsurfing was introduced in Japan by Haruhide Suzuki in November of 1972, which brought about one of earliest cases of its spread in the world. The patent for a wind-propelled apparatus was applied for on March 11, 1969 and this indicated that the windsurfer was not just a set of individual parts but an entire system. The Japan Windsurfing Association and Windsurfing Japan, Inc. played a major role in the spread. On the other hand, the export / import and manufacturing were always under the control of Windsurfing Japan, Inc. which had the exclusive license. While this promoted the improvement of skills in windsurfing, the transition to an open class and the introduction of the short board were restricted. Boards other than the Windsurfer were imported and manufactured due to the information from overseas and the interests of enthusiasts, and a controversy occurred over the validity, range and contents of the patent from judicial and legislative viewpoints. The patent became almost invalid temporarily because the decision of the hearing on May 28 of 1983 declared "the patent is invalid", and the controversy in court continued, however the entry of dealers increased rapidly. The market opened and expanded, and the races of an open class and the professional tour races became popular. However, the patent right existed until the expiration date of May 31, 1986. Windsurfing was accepted in the Olympics as one of the yachting events in July of 1980, however disorder occurred due to the terms of the patent. The type of vehicle and the race itself were not decided, which made the athletes perplexed. In addition, in Japan, windgliders could not be obtained soon and the training of athletes was delayed. After the controversy for two and a half years, windgliding was decided as an official event of the Los Angeles Olympics in March of 1983. Races were held as a result of having established a public tournament of windsurfing. The Japan Windsurfing Association became the Japan Board Sailing Association (JBSA) in December of 1983, changing its name and system, and since then windsurfing has being developed as boardsailing.