Western military music or the drum and fife corps was diffused in every corner of the earth with expansion of colonization in the late 19th century. It was not the art music but the new technology of maintaining the order in an army, especially in drill of an infantry. Since this technology was often mixed with different cultures of music, it assimilated into local community. In Japan, a number of Western-style drum corps with Japanese bamboo flute were founded in the end of Edo period. In the first part of this paper, I made clear the social context and role of drum and drummer in a platoon Yamaguni-tai which was organized voluntarily to enter into the Boshin Civil War (1868). The leader Itsuki Fujino's daily war report serves to attain this purpose. Because the drum call and march were essential to the stable operation of modern tactics, they must be trained elaboratively during the War under the signal of drummer boy, who was employed from outside. Snare drum made them develop their physical ability as soldiers. Just before the end of the War members of Yamaguni-tai had learned how to play the snare drum or flute in order to participate in a triumphant return from Edo to Kyoto. They handed down two repertories for this parade on the next generation: “Koshinkyoku [March]” and “Reishiki [Ceremony], ” which would have represented the legitimacy of the new Meiji Government backing up the Mikado. In the second part, I focused on their drumming. Although at the present time Yamaguni-tai dresses in period military costume and blows pentatonic melodies on the bamboo flutes, we can point out some evidences enough to prove that their playing manner have its roots on Western music. In Yamaguni-tai the performance has been memorized by means of the onomatopoeic words and graphic notation for drum. Based on careful observation and analysis of their presentation, it is obvious that these two tools indicated exactly player's bodily movements of both arms rather than the sound itself. This onomatopoeia including “Hororon” (=once five stroke roll) and “En Tei” (=twice flam; “En Tei” is derive from Dutch “een twee”) corresponds to well-known drum exercises for stick control: Drum Rudiments. For that reason we can conclude Yamaguni-tai to be a fine example of acculturation of Western Music in Japan. It should be stressed that they have been able to continue their oral tradition since the Meiji Restoration just because of unawareness of the origin of their own drum method. If we tried to translate their music into Western musical notation which was familiar to us, their physical movements could never survive no longer.
Charkh is one of many keywords when considering Iranian culture. In Persian, Charkh initially means “a wheel”, and secondarily “firmament and fate”. In Iranian culture, “firmament and fate” must be regarded as “circulation”, and moreover, the Iranian view of life is often likened to “the wheel of fate”. This concept of Charkh is applicable not only for exploring the view of life of Iranian people in Persian classic poetry studies, but also for various fields in Iranology. For example, in Persian music studies, the concept of Charkh, though not necessarily extending to being a view of life is, nevertheless, highly suggestive if only for its implications of “circulation”. In this paper, I illustrate how a Charkh-like structure is reflected in performance type and in the musical structure of Iranian music, and how it exists in various scales as multilayers and interlaces in one performance. Finally, I clarify the Iranian way of listening, feeling and making music which is peculiar to a Charkh feeling. The Charkh-like structure in Iranian music indicates the following temporal distribution of traditional melody types such as “change and recursion of tessitura and atmosphere”. Several traditional melody types, which constitute the mode of Iranian music, are, roughly speaking, performed from melody types, which take on lower tessitura, to melody types which take on higher tessitura. And after reaching the highest tessitura of the mode, it returns quickly to the tessitura and atmosphere of a base through a certain fixed melody type called “forud (down)”. This “Charkh” structure is surely reflected in the performance type and musical structure of Iranian music, and exists on various scales in multilayers, and interlaces each other in one performance. There is, therefore, way of listening, feeling and making music peculiar to a “Charkh feeling” there. For example, when a performance is heard independently, it can be heard as a climax, and in a “Charkh feeling”, it turns out that its emotional expression is controlled for the following further climax. Moreover, the melody type called “forud” is recognized and felt not as a merely descending figure but as a “recursion” function that forms “Charkh”. Namely, this “View of Charkh” has a very important meaning in the mind of the leading player during improvisation in terms of “what to do next?” In the world of traditional music, musical acquisition is not merely memorizing traditional melody types as a repertory but rather the acquisition of a “View of Charkh”. Even in improvisation for fun, a musician sets up a “forud” based on this “View of Charkh”.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the content of a study in which a Confucian scholar of the mid-Edo period, OGYU Sorai, examined Jieshi-diao Youlan Vol. 5 (abb. Youlan), a classical music notation of the Chinese qin (Jp. kin), the seven-stringed zither. Youlan is the world's oldest extant notation of qin music, and is now preserved as a national treasure in the Tokyo National Museum. Since it is an important resource that conveys qin music before the Tang dynasty, interpretive research and reenactment of Youlan have been actively conducted in both Japan and China. OGYU Sorai was the first scholar to discover the value of Youlan. Sorai is known have devoted the last years of his life to the interpretive study of Youlan. Yet, very little has been known about how he actually translated and played Youlan. In this paper, as the first step to uncover the actual facts, Sorai's interpretations on the tuning of Youlan were examined mainly based on his book, Yuran-fu-sho. As a result, the following findings became clear. First, Sorai interpreted the tuning of Youlan not as the tuning of what is called “zheng-diao (Jp. seicho)”, the basic tuning of qin, but as the “manjue-diao (Jp. mankakucho)” with the third string lowered a semi tone. Second, the basis for interpreting the tuning of Youlan as the “manjue-diao” was founded on his view regarding Jieshi-diao (Jp. Kesseki-cho) as well as on his theories regarding the modes of the tuning of the qin and Japanese gagaku (togaku), which have been discussed in his writings such as Kingaku-taii-sho. Lastly, before this study, Yuran-fu-sho had not been recognized as Sorai's writing; this resource had never been mentioned in previous studies. In this study, however, the presence of Sorai's autographed book owned by the OGYU family, was verified for the first time, proving that Yuran-fu-sho was Sorai's work.
‘Gidayu-kyogen’ is the general term for kabuki plays which were originally written for ningyo-joruri and were adapted for kabuki. Gidayu-kyogen plays an important role in current kabuki repertoire, and as the popular gidayu-kyogen plays have been repeatedly performed since the eighteenth century, each play has obtained its own fixed form, not only in the acting style in general but also in realm of musical direction with offstage music (kage-bayashi). In this paper, I would like to clarify the chronological transition of the offstage music and to investigate how the fixed forms of offstage music have been established in gidayu-kyogen. I have chosen the following three scenes from frequently performed gidayu-kyogen plays: Jisshuko in “Honcho nijushiko”, Kumagai jinya in “Ichinotani futaba gunki” and Kuruma-biki in “Sugawara denju tenarai kagami”. The chronological comparison of the offstage music written in tsuke-cho, notes for offstage musicians, gives us insight into the process of the establishment of the fixed forms of offstage music in each scene. The offstage music in Jisshuko today has a basically fixed form and the prevalent direction today is known as utaemon-gata (lit. Utaemon's style) named after Nakamura Utaemon V (1865-1940). While there used to be various types of directions, utaemon-gata direction was becoming standardised as early as the late Meiji period (1868-1912). Similarly, although the offstage music of this scene had more variety in the Meiji Period, the choice of the musical piece became principally fixed by 1920's. This indicates that the fixed form of the offstage music of this scene was completed by then. There is a fixed form of the offstage music in Kumagai jinya as well, although the offstage music is not highly active in this scene. The prevalent direction of this scene is widely known as danjuro-gata (lit. Danjuro's style) named for Ichikawa Danjuro IX (1838-1903). The chronological comparison of the musical direction demonstrates that danjuro-gata and its offstage music direction have become gradually predominant after the Taisho period (1912-1925). In Kuruma-biki, the standard form of the offstage music was fixed as early as the middle of the Meiji period, which is earlier than the case of the two plays mentioned above. It is probably because there was no room to add new devices direction in the modern age as Kuruma-biki is a highly stylised play with aragoto elements. Interestingly, several tsuke-cho in the Meiji and Taisho period omit the notation of the offstage music of Kuruma-biki as the offstage music of this play has been already fixed. From what has been discussed above, it can be pointed out that the offstage music direction has undergone the process of the fixation from the middle of the Meiji to the beginning of the Taisho period. In the middle of the Meiji period there was an enthusiastic movement to record and preserve great actors' acting styles (kata) and gidayu kyogen were respected as ‘kata-mono’. There is no need to say that the establishment of the fixed forms of offstage music is related to this movement. Although the offstage music written in tsukecho is only a part of the direction, the examination of offstage music direction in past performances is able to play a significant role to investigate how current kabuki direction has been established.
Jongmyo is the Royal Ancestral Shrine and holds the mortuary tablets of the kings and queens of the Chosun Dynasty (1392-1910). It is situated in the centre of Seoul. A ceremony known as the Jongmyo Jerye (Royal Shrine Ritual) is held there regularly. It is consists of Jongmyo Jeryeak (Ritual Music) played by a vocal and instrumental ensemble and Ilmu dance with equal numbers of rows and dancers both on all sides. The Jongmyo Jerye and Jongmyo Jeryeak are both recognised as Korean Intangible Cultural Assets and are listed by UNESCO as Intangible World Cultural Heritage. During the Chosun Dynasty, Jongmyo Jeryeak was held by the Chosun Kings with their participating in the ceremony, but with no Kingdom in present-day Korea, it has now become a Cultural Heritage. In this paper I would like to trace the changes that took place in Jongmyo Jeryeak focusing in particular on its state during the time of Korea's Colonization by Japan, a time that links the Chosun period with the present day. With the colonization of Korea by Japan in 1910, Jongmyo Jeryeak became the responsibility of the Yiwangjik Aakbu (Royal Music Institute of the Yi Household), an institution created by the Kunaisho (the predecessor of the present day Kunaicho). Whenever a ritual was held at Jongmyo, the Yiwangjik Aakbu would regularly perform and thus there are related materials which remain as public documents. In this paper I will take two kinds of such documents, and analyse the section “Matters relating to the sending of Aakubuwon”. I was able to get such material for the thirty two Jongmyo Jerye that took place in the ten years from 1928 to 1938. Through analysis of these documents, differences in practice with present Jongmyo Jerye became apparent. In the 1920s and 1930s, Jongmyo Jerye was held four times a year in each season. In Spring and Autumn, it was performed in two places, at the Jeong Jeon (or Main Shrine) and the Yeongnyeong Jeon (or annex), but in Winter and Summer it was only performed at the Jeong Jeon. The present-day Jongmyo Jerye is held once a year on the first Sunday of May and is performed both at the Jeong Jeon and the Yeongnyeong Jeon. The musicians of the former Jongmyo Jeryeak consisted of members of the Yiwangjik Aakbu as well as other employed musicians independent of this institution. Present day the Jongmyo Jeryeak Conservation Committee is led by musicians from the National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts. Ilmu was performed by 36 male dancers from the Yiwangjik Aakbu, but now is made up of 64 female dancers from the Gukak National Middle and High School and the Ilmu Conversation committee. There is little change in the composition of the instruments used in the Jongmyo Jeryeak of old and that of today. One interesting point is the absence of the eo (wooden tiger) in the former. Today there are a lot more people concentrated in the wind and string sections. There is also a principle that each musician only plays one instrument in present day Jongmyo Jeryeak, whereas in the former it became apparent that a musician would play more than one instrument according to the make up of the ensemble. Based on the above observations, it can be said that although the Jongmyo Jeryeak ensemble and Ilmu dance troupe were smaller in Colonial times, as a result of regular performances at the Jongmyo Jerye by musicians and dancers from the Yiwangjik Aakbu four times a year when Korea was liberated in 1945, Jongmyo Jeryeak did not die out but was maintained by the National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts, becoming both Korean and World Cultural Heritages.