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Special Issue for General Reviews “Fundamentals of elastomers and the latest analysis technology (2)”
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General Reviews
    2024 Volume 97 Issue 2 Pages 22-26
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: February 27, 2024

    Multidimensional structural analyses of polymer materials through scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are utilized to investigate diverse structural factors, encompassing three-dimensional spatial structure, elemental composition, chemical structure, and even time-dependent structural changes. STEM-EDX-tomography facilitates 3D elemental mapping of silica-filled rubber blends. STEM-EELS/ELNES phase mapping enables chemical mapping of the phase separation in polymer alloys. In-situ STEM provides the capability for real-time observation of the failure process of the adhesive interface, employing a tensile strain specimen holder.

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  • Yusuke SAKUDA, Chikako NAKAYAMA, Hiroshi ONODERA, Masafumi TASAKI, Kaz ...
    2024 Volume 97 Issue 2 Pages 27-33
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: February 27, 2024

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an analysis and measurement instrument that irradiates a narrowly focused electron beam onto a sample. It detects electrons, cathodoluminescence and characteristic X-rays emitted by the interaction of the incident electron beam in the material. SEM is widely used by many researchers because of the various analytical targets, such as metals, semiconductors, and biological samples.
    On the other hand, we must carefully consider electron beam damage and charging artifact for soft materials because the irradiation source of SEM is electrons.
    One of the most difficult soft materials is rubber. Rubber is a kind of polymeric material, and each product required different properties such as elasticity, hardness, flame resistance, heat resistance, ozone resistance, and low-temperature properties.
    This paper introduces practical measurement methods for rubber materials using SEM and the latest examples of applied analysis.

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  • Takako CHIBA
    2024 Volume 97 Issue 2 Pages 34-38
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: February 27, 2024

    Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are important tools for material analysis to obtain information of molecular chemical structures. Both spectrometers are easy to operate and provide results quickly. In addition, simultaneous measurement that combines different methods can be obtained multifaceted information. In this article, three examples are introduced, and they could be applied to analysis for other kind of rubbers and elastomers. First example is infrared spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) to identify rubber components. Second one is Raman spectroscopy to examine degradation of elastomers by focusing on peaks derived from the molecular skeletal structure. Last one is simultaneous measurement of rheology and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the quality of polymers.

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