The present study is aimed at assessing the ability of metal-resistant yeast, Candida tropicalis CBL-1, to uptake metal from liquid medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cd(II) against Candida tropicalis CBL-1 was 2,800 mg/L. The yeast could also tolerate Zn(II) (3,100 mg/L), Hg(II) (2,400 mg/L), Ni(II) (2,200 mg/L), Cr(VI) (2,000 mg/L), Pb(II) (1,100 mg/L), and Cu(II) (2,200 mg/L). The yeast isolate showed typical growth curves but lag and log phases extended in the presence of cadmium. The yeast isolate showed optimum growth at 30ºC and pH 7. The metal processing ability of the isolate was determined in a medium containing 100 mg/L of Cd(II). Candida tropicalis CBL-1, could reduce Cd(II) 59%, 64% and 70% from the medium after 48, 96 and 144 h, respectively. C. tropicalis CBL-1 was also able to remove Cd(II) 46% and 60% from the wastewater after 6 and 12 days, respectively. Cd produced an increase in glutathione and non-protein thiols level by 37% (17.50±0.8−24.0±1.2) and 18% (3.30±0.7− 3.90±0.8) at 100 mg/L concentration, respectively. Metal tolerance and accumulation together with changes in the GSH status and non-protein thiols under Cd exposure were studied in C. tropicalis.
Forty-one isolates of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from fermented fish (pla-ra) in Thailand. On the basis of their phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, DNA-DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses, they were divided into six groups. The isolates in Group I to V were Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria. They contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7). An isolate in Group VI was a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium. The DNA G+C contents of tested strains ranged from 36.5−63 mol%. Ten strains (Group I) were identified as Virgibacillus dokdonensis, 13 isolates (Group II) as V. halodenitrificans, 14 isolates (Group III) as V. marismortui, 1 isolate (Group IV) as Virgibacillus sp., 2 isolates (Group V) as Bacillus vietnamnensis, and 1 isolate (Group VI) as Chromohalobacter salexigens. Isolate MS3-4 in Group IV was closely related to V. carmonensis KCTC 3819T (95.9%). This strain contained anteiso-C15:0 (55.8%) and anteiso-C17:0 (17.7%) as major cellular fatty acids and had phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid as polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of MS3-4 was 38.0 mol%. The strain from Group IV is proposed as Virgibacillus siamensis sp. nov. and MS3-4T is the type strain (JCM 15395T =PCU 312T =TISTR 1957T).
To investigate the production of useful phenols from plant resources, we examined the metabolism of cinnamic acid derivatives by a wood-rotting fungus, Schizophyllum commune. Four cinnamic acid derivatives (cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids) were tested as substrates. Two main reactions, reduction and cleavage of the side chain, were observed. Reduction of the side chain was confirmed in cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid metabolism. The side chain cleavage occurred in p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid metabolism but the initial reactions of these acids differed. Sinapic acid was not metabolized by S. commune. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde accumulation was observed in the culture to which p-coumaric acid was added. This suggests that S. commune is a useful agent for transforming p-coumaric acid into p-hydroxybenzaldehyde.
Sulfobacillus sp. TPY is a moderately thermophilic and acidophilic bacterium found in hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. This bacterium can oxidize ferrous sulfate (Fe2+) and elemental sulfur (S0) under separate conditions. We used random arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) to screen and identify differentially expressed genes from bacteria grown on Fe2+ or S0 as the energy source. Fifty-five differential cDNA fragments were isolated and subjected to single-pass sequencing. Thirty-five fragments were identified as orthologs of known genes in the GenBank databases, of which 19 were confirmed to be differentially expressed at the transcriptional level by Northern blot analysis. Among these 19 genes, 14 genes, including isocitrate dehydrogenase, formyltetrahydrofolate deformylase, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and GTP-binding protein, were upregulated in TPY grown on Fe2+ or downregulated in TPY grown on S0, while five genes such as the outer membrane adhesion-like protein, phosphomannomutase, and cysteine desulfurase sufS were upregulated in TPY strain grown on S0 or downregulated in TPY grown on Fe2+. These altered genes are involved in metabolism, osmotic stress, cell membrane alterations, oxidative stress, and the regulatory adaptive response. These results will aid our understanding of the molecular basis of Fe2+ or S0 oxidation by the moderately thermophilic and acidophilic bacteria.
In the article "Rhizomicrobium palustre gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, fermentative stalked bacterium in the class Alphaproteobacteria isolated from rice plant roots" by A. Ueki et al.,
1) lines 33-34, left column on page 194
2) lines 4-5, left column on page 201
3) lines 9-10, right column on page 201
Correct statement for all corrections: RR25 (= JCM 14973 = DSM 19866) and RR54 (= JCM 14972 = DSM 19865)