A strain of Nonomuraea was isolated from Maheshkhali, Cox's Bazar, an unexplored region of Bangladesh. Strain 16-5-14T is a Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete that formed branched substrate and aerial mycelia. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain 16-5-14T was shown to belong to the genus Nonomuraea, being most closely related to Nonomuraea kuesteri. Chemotaxonomic data supported allocation of the strain as a member of the genus Nonomuraea. The strain 16-5-14T contained MK-9(H4) as the major menaquinone, the polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine and major cellular fatty acids were observed as C16 : 0 (15.5%), iso-C16 : 0 (13.8%) and 10-methyl C17 : 0 (9.6%). Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain 16-5-14T from closely related species N. kuesteri. Thus 16-5-14T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea. On the basis of evaluation of the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and DNA-DNA hybridization, Nonomuraea maheshkhaliensis sp. nov. (type strain, 16-5-14T=JCM 13929T=MTCC 8545T) is proposed.
Using a genotypic approach (PCR-fingerprinting, DNA/DNA reassociation, partial sequences of the 26S rDNA gene, complete sequences of the 18S rDNA gene, and sequences of the internal transcribed spacers) five tremelloid yeast isolates from the agarics Asterophora lycoperdoides and A. parasitica were shown to be conspecific with Cryptococcus ramirezgomezianus. It was not possible to distinguish the yeast strains from A. lycoperdoides and A. parasitica using sequences from the intergenic spacer (IGS1). Phylogeny based on the 26S (D1/D2-domain), ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and complete 18S rDNA demonstrated that C. ramirezgomezianus is closely related to several additional Cryptococcus species (C. humicola, C. longus, C. musci, C. pseudolongus) within the Trichosporonales. A new genus, Asterotremella, and a new family, Asterotremellaceae were introduced for Cryptococcus species clustering within the Trichosporonales having a ubiquinone Q-9. Cryptococcus ramirezgomezianus is a synonym of Asterotremella albida.
An alcohol oxidase (AOD) was found from Aspergillus ochraceus AIU 031, and its characteristics were revealed. This enzyme oxidized short-chain primary alcohols and ethylene glycol, and belonged to the same group as AOD from methylotrophic yeast. However, it differed in the following properties. The Km value for ethanol was larger and that for ethylene glycol was smaller than those of AODs derived from methylotrophic yeasts. The ethanol oxidation was optimal at pH 5–7 and 50–55°C. The molecular mass of this enzyme was 262 kDa and consisted of four identical subunits of 68 kDa, which were much smaller than those of methylotrophic yeasts.
A novel Janibacter species is described on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data. Two bacterial strains were isolated in Palau, which were both Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacteria with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-8(H4). Mycolic acids were not detected. The G+C content of the DNA was 70–71 mol%. Comparative 16S rDNA studies of the two isolated strains revealed that they both belonged to the genus Janibacter. DNA-DNA relatedness data revealed that 04PA2-Co5-61T and 02PA-Ca-009 belong to the same species, a new species of the genus Janibacter. From these results, Janibacter corallicola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 04PA2-Co5-61T (=MBIC 08265T, DSM 18906T).
Diversity and compositions of the Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium group in the feces of six healthy, actively racing horses (Thoroughbreds) were analyzed by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR with primer sets specific for each group. PCR-DGGE analysis of the feces showed that Lactobacillus equi, Lactobacillus johnsonii, a phylogenetic relative of Lactobacillus salivarius, a phylogenetic relative of Lactobacillus gastricus, and Weissella confusa were predominant in almost all of the feces tested, and Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus was predominant in the Streptococcus group. The Bifidobacterium group was not detected by single-PCR but atypical species of the group were found in three of the six Thoroughbreds tested by nested-PCR. Calculation and estimation of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria revealed that lactic acid bacteria were predominant in the feces and bifidobacteria were minor. These results indicate that the community of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in horse feces are unique because of the presence of specific species for horse feces and a minority of the Bifidobacterium group. Repeated tests of the feces from the same horse over 3 months showed that the diversity and composition of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the feces was basically stable throughout the test period.