Glutaredoxins (Grxs) and thioredoxins (Trxs) play a critical role in resistance to oxidative conditions. However, physiological and biochemical roles of Mycoredoxin 3 (Mrx3) that shared a high amino acid sequence similarity to Grxs remain unknown in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Here we showed that mrx3 deletion strains of C. glutamicum was involved in the protection against oxidative stress. Recombinant Mrx3 not only catalytically reduced the disulfide bonds in ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), insulin and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitro-benzoicacid) (DTNB), but also reduced the mixed disulphides between mycothiol (MSH) and substrate, which was exclusively linked to the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) electron transfer pathway by a dithiol mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the conserved Cys17 and Cys20 in Mrx3 were necessary to maintain its activity. The mrx3 deletion mutant showed decreased resistance to various stress, and these sensitive phenotypes were almost fully restored in the complementary strain. The physiological roles of Mrx3 in resistance to various stress were further supported by the induced expression of mrx3 under various stress conditions, directly under the control of the stress-responsive extracytoplasmic function-sigma (ECF-σ) factor SigH. Thus, we presented the first evidence that Mrx3 protected against various oxidative stresses by acting as a disulfide oxidoreductase behaving like Trx.
With the aid of a chain transfer (CT) reaction, hydroxyalkanoate (HA) oligomers can be secreted by recombinant Escherichia coli carrying the gene encoding a lactate-polymerizing enzyme (PhaC1PsSTQK) in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with a carbon source and CT agent. In this study, HA oligomers were produced through microbial secretion using a mineral-based medium instead of LB medium, and the impact of medium composition on HA oligomer secretion was investigated. The focused targets were medium composition and NaCl concentration related to osmotic conditions. It was observed that 4.21 g/L HA oligomer was secreted by recombinant E. coli in LB medium, but the amount secreted in the mineral-based modified R (MR) medium was negligible. However, when the MR medium was supplemented with 5 g/L yeast extract, 3.75 g/L HA oligomer was secreted. This can be accounted for by the enhanced expression and activity of PhaC1PsSTQK upon supplementation with growth-activated nutrients as supplementation with yeast extract also promoted cell growth and intracellular growth-associated polymer accumulation. Furthermore, upon adding 10 g/L NaCl to the yeast extract-supplemented MR medium, HA oligomer secretion increased to 6.86 g/L, implying that NaCl-induced osmotic pressure promotes HA oligomer secretion. These findings may facilitate the secretory production of HA oligomers using an inexpensive medium.
Glycerol is an attractive raw material for the production of useful chemicals using microbial cells. We previously identified metabolic engineering targets for the improvement of glycerol assimilation ability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) and transcriptome analysis of the evolved cells. We also successfully improved glycerol assimilation ability by the disruption of the RIM15 gene encoding a Greatwall protein kinase together with overexpression of the STL1 gene encoding the glycerol/H+ symporter. To understand glycerol assimilation metabolism in the evolved glycerol-assimilating strains and STL1-overexpressing RIM15 disruptant, we performed metabolic flux analysis using 13C-labeled glycerol. Significant differences in metabolic flux distributions between the strains obtained from the culture after 35 and 85 generations in ALE were not found, indicating that metabolic flux changes might occur in the early phase of ALE (i.e., before 35 generations at least). Similarly, metabolic flux distribution was not significantly changed by RIM15 gene disruption. However, fluxes for the lower part of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were larger and, as a result, flux for the pentose phosphate pathway was smaller in the STL1-overexpressing RIM15 disruptant than in the strain obtained from the culture after 85 generations in ALE. It could be effective to increase flux for the pentose phosphate pathway to improve the glycerol assimilation ability in S. cerevisiae.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian sympathetic nervous system and has other health benefits. Molecular characterization, genome analysis, and optimization were investigated to improve GABA production of a selected strain of lactic acid bacteria. Eleven isolates from plant materials were screened for GABA productivity and were identified based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The most potent strain was chosen for genome analysis and GABA production optimization using the response surface methodology (RSM). Each of the two strains was closely related to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Weissella cibaria, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides while each strain was similar to Lactobacillus pentosus, Enterococcus lactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. They produced GABA ranging from 0.036 ± 0.000 to 17.315 ± 0.171 g/L at 72 h-cultivation. Among them, the most potent strain, SL9-6, showed the highest GABA production (17.315 g/L) when cultivated with 10% (v/v) inoculum for 48 h. The draft genome sequence of strain SL9-6 exhibited 96.90% average nucleotide identity value and 74.50% digital DNA-DNA hybridization to Lactobacillus brevis NCTC 13768T. This strain contained a glutamate decarboxylase gene system (gadA, gadB, and gadC). Optimal culture conditions were determined as 40.00 g/L glucose, 49.90 g/L monosodium glutamate, pH 5.94, and 31.10°C by RSM, giving maximum GABA production of 32.48 g/L. Results from RSM also indicated that monosodium glutamate concentration, pH, and temperature were significant variables. GABA production significantly improved here could promise further application of strain SL9-6.
Probiotics have been shown to improve microbial compositions in animal intestine and feces, but the effects of probiotic administration on airborne microbial composition in animal houses remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary Enterococcus faecalis on the bacterial community structure in the air of piglet and layer hen houses. Indoor air and feces from piglet and layer hen houses were sampled after supplementing E. faecalis in feed for 60 days, and bacterial community structures were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. Results showed that Chao1, ACE, Shannon, and Simpson indices of bacterial diversity did not significantly change in feces or indoor air of piglet or layer hen after supplementation with E. faecalis (P > 0.05). However, E. faecalis administration resulted in a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P < 0.05). In addition, E. faecalis significantly reduced the relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens such as Acinetobacter, Escherichia, and Shigella (P < 0.05), and beneficial bacterial genus such as Lactobacillus was significantly enriched in both feces and indoor air (P < 0.05). These changes should be of benefit to livestock, farm workers, and the surrounding environment.
The supply of oven-fresh bakery products to consumers has been improved by frozen dough technology; however, freeze-thaw stress decreases the activity of yeast cells. To breed better baker's yeasts for frozen dough, it is important to understand the factors affecting freeze-thaw stress tolerance in baker's yeast. We analyzed the stress response in IB1411, a spore clone from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shirakami kodama yeast, with an exceptionally high tolerance to freeze-thaw stress. Genes encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS1), catalase (CTT1), and disaggregase (HSP104) were highly expressed in IB1411 cells even under conditions of non-stress. The expression of Hsp104 protein was also higher in IB1411 cells even under non-stress conditions. Deletion of HSP104 (hsp104Δ) in IB1411 cells reduced the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). By monitoring the accumulation of aggregated proteins using the ΔssCPY*-GFP fusion protein under freeze-thaw stress or treatment with proteasomal inhibitor, we found that IB1411 cells resolved aggregated proteins faster than the hsp104Δ strain. Thus, Hsp104 seems to contribute to freeze-thaw tolerance by maintaining UPS activity via the disaggregation of aggregated proteins. Lastly, we found that the IB1411 cells maintained high leavening ability in frozen dough as compared with the parental strain, Shirakami kodama yeast, and thus will be useful for making bread.