Eleven strains of Escherichia coli were isolated from 54 bank voles living in the Lomza Landscape Park of the Narew River Valley, indicating that E. coli is not common in the alimentary tract of these mammals. On the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and computer-assisted analysis, the isolates were grouped into six genotypes at similarities of 39%. Chromosome length of E. coli under study differed by as much as 900kb, ranging 2.7-3.6Mb. All strains were susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin, whereas, for tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, and cefonicid, different results were noted. No differences were detected among the plasmid complements of eight strains (73%), for which plasmid profiles revealed the presence of two plasmidic bands. One, three and four plasmids were observed in a plasmid pattern of single isolates. The observation from the study indicated the high genetic polymorphism among the isolates recovered from the animals of one species living in the same environment.
A local isolate of Aspergillus terreus was selected among different microorganisms as a new cyclosporin A (Cy A) producing culture. The formation of Cy A was investigated under different fermentation conditions (including selection of the cultivation medium, fermentation time course, inoculum nature, medium volume, agitation rate, pH value). Relatively high Cy A productivities were maintained when the fermentation process was carried out using a medium composed of (g/L): glucose, 50; bactopeptone, 10; KH2PO4, 5; KCl, 2.5; pH 5.3, inoculated with 2% standard inoculum of 48h age, shaken at 200rpm for 10 days.
The inner part of Tokyo Bay, Japan, is highly eutrophicated as shown by the frequent occurrence of red tide. The bottom water is anoxic during warm seasons especially at artificially dredged sites. In the sediment slurries prepared from surface sediment samples collected from the dredged sites, substrate addition stimulated the consumption of sulfate during anaerobic incubation. Of the substrates added, the seston composed mainly of diatom stimulated consumption more than lactate and acetate. Its effect was nearly equal to that of casamino acids. Casamino acids and some amino acids also accelerated the rate of sulfate reduction measured by the tracer method in sediment samples more than lactate or acetate. Anaerobic incubation of the sediment slurry amended with casamino acids showed that the consumption of amino acids was retarded by the addition of molybdate (final concentration; 20mM). In the slurry amended with only molybdate, glutamate was accumulated distinctively and linearly with time. Its accumulation rate in molar base was comparable to the rate of sulfate reduction. These results suggested that amino acids were the main substrates for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the sediment. The MPN values of SRB in these sediment samples were often higher with the enumeration medium containing casamino acids instead of lactate. Furthermore, during a week incubation of sediment slurries amended with substrates, casamino acids and seston more greatly stimulated the growth of SRB enumerated by both media than lactate.
Two strains of yeasts that contain Q-10 as the major ubiquinone, lack cellular xylose and produce large bilaterally symmetrical ballistoconidia were isolated from plants collected in a protected subtropical rain forest in Taiwan and were found to represent a new species. The taxonomic properties of this species coincide with the genus Sporobolomyces, so it is described as Sporobolomyces magnisporus sp. nov. In phylogenetic trees based on the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA and D1/D2 domain of 26S ribosomal DNA, this species is located in the Erythrobasidium cluster.