The present study focused on the psychological independence and the intimacy of relationships between parents and their children who were emerging adults, in order to obtain information on differences among the dyads. The participants (university students) completed questionnaires. In Study 1, a parent-child psychological independence scale and a parent-child intimacy scale were developed. Study 2, which examined differences in the scores on subscale of those scales, revealed that the mother-daughter relationships had the highest scores on reliability and intimacy. In addition, the daughters were individuated from their fathers in most of the dyads. In Study 3, the correlation between psychological independence and intimacy showed that the mechanism for developing trust in one's parents was different among the dyads. Study 4 examined the relationship between a 4-category model of parent-child relationships (dependent conflict, detached, connected, and independent) and self-esteem, autonomy, and proactivity. The emerging adults' independence from their fathers was related to their being more adaptive and more developed. A significant gender difference was found in self-esteem. These data indicated that the daughters who were independent without developing trust in their mothers reported lower self-esteem.
The present study investigated how attachment to parents and satisfaction with relationships with teachers and friends influence students' adjustment to junior high school. Junior high school students (7th grade: 74 boys, 66 girls; 8th grade: 61 boys, 74 girls; 9th grade: 81 boys, 87 girls) completed a questionnaire examining their sense of comfort, feelings of acceptance and trust, and absence of feelings of inferiority. The results showed that attachment to parents and satisfaction with relationships with ones' teachers and friends had a positive influence on school adjustment. In addition, school adjustment interacted with attachment to parents and satisfaction with relationships with teachers and friends. Specifically, even students who had grown up without good relationships with their parents reported a positive adjustment to school when their satisfaction with their relationships with their teachers and friends was high. In contrast, good relationships with parents were not found to enhance students' adjustment to school. The students who reported little satisfaction with their relationships with their teachers and friends had poor adjustment to school, regardless of the extent of their attachment to their parents.
The present study investigated how students feel about various ways to console a close friend who failed an examination. Junior high 8th graders (70 boys, 81 girls), high school 11th graders (124 boys, 146 girls), and university 1st and 2nd year students (143 men, 76 women) completed questionnaires in which they rated how they felt about a close friend offering verbal consolation, non-verbal consolation, or distancing him- or herself. The results indicated that the students felt more grateful and less offended when receiving verbal or nonverbal consolation from their friends than when their friends distanced themselves. In addition, the students were least self-reproaching and offended when their friends offered non-verbal consolation. Moreover, the results indicated that the junior high school students desired closed relationships (relationships only with close friends) and had less desire for mutual respect (mutually respecting ways of thinking) than did the high school and university students. Related to that, the junior high school students reported feeling highly offended when their close friends distanced themselves. These findings suggest that non-verbal consolation by a close friend (even when the friend cannot change the situation) may be an effective form of consolation for students who are depressed about having failed an examination.
The present research investigated impacts of anticipated costs and benefits of seeking and avoiding help on university students' help-seeking intentions toward their friends. In Study 1, a scale to measure anticipated costs and benefits of seeking and avoiding help was developed, and the scale was confirmed to be sufficiently reliable and valid. In Study 2, university students (267 males, 436 females) completed a questionnaire. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that (a) both the anticipated benefits of seeking help and the anticipated costs and benefits of avoiding help influenced help-seeking intentions, and (b) some of the costs and benefits mediated the effects of social support and depressive symptoms on help-seeking intentions.
The present study investigated the process of changing the attitudes of elementary school principals toward school evaluation when implementing Getting To Outcomes (GTO). Getting To Outcomes is a 10-step model and series of supports designed to help organizations achieve the maximum benefit from any program with high-quality program evaluations. Getting To Outcomes is a tool for conducting an empowerment evaluation approach that fosters collaborative autonomous management in organizations. The participants were the principals of 5 elementary schools that were implementing Getting To Outcomes. The Trajectory Equifinality Model (TEM) was used as the analytical procedure. The results revealed that the principals gradually developed the following attitudes: (a) that it was possible to improve school evaluations by introducing clear goals and action/evaluation plans, and (b) that their sense of control of comprehensive school management could be enhanced by initiating school-wide evaluation. In addition, the principals came to recognize the value and importance of school-wide implementation of school evaluation. It was also found that professional support, including reviewing modifications of the management plan when necessary, and providing and tailoring evaluation tools to fit the needs and context of each school, was vital for facilitating changes in the principals' attitudes.