The purposes of the present study were to develop a scale to measure parental cognition of the trustworthiness of teachers, and to examine related factors. Purpose 1: In order to develop the scale, 34 items were chosen, based on a pilot study, and the resulting questionnaire was completed by 516 parents of elementary and junior high school students. A factor analysis yielded 4 factors: "role executing competence", "disciplinary guidance", "guidance according to individual children's needs", and "favorable regard by the child". Using the results of that analysis, the Parental Cognition of Trustworthiness of Teachers Scale was developed with those 4 factors and higher construct. Purpose 2: An investigation of related factors that might predict parental trust of teachers revealed that the parents' level of satisfaction with how the school dealt with trouble among the children was significant. In addition, when scores on the Parental Cognition of Trustworthiness of Teachers Scale and on the measure of the parents' level of satisfaction with how the school dealt with trouble among the children were both low, the parents were more likely to report feeling anxious about asking teachers for help. These findings suggest that parental cognition of the trustworthiness of teachers may be an important element in successful collaboration between parents and teachers.
The present study investigated correlations between regulatory focus and relationships with rivals, examining whether people with promotion-focused traits tend to develop rival relationships and benefit from such relationships compared to people with prevention-focused traits, and whether differences in regulatory focus might affect performance, mediated by the effect of rivals. In both Study 1 and Study 2, the participants, male and female university athletes, completed questionnaires. In Study 1 (N=188), the word "rival" was employed. The results indicated that the athletes with promotion-focused traits tended to actualize their ideal self and became encouraged and motivated by relationships with rivals, and predicted self-efficacy for performance through encouraging motivation. Study 2 (N=105) was an attempt to verify the results of Study 1 without employing the word "rival". The results nearly reproduced the results of Study 1. The results of both studies were consistent with the hypothesis made prior to the research. Moreover, the presence or number of rivals was not significantly correlated with regulatory focus. Finally, the characteristics of others suitable for individuals with prevention-focused traits were examined. The discussion deals with future issues and perspectives.
The present study investigated whether group motivation for participating in athletic club activities could be understood better by examining whether the interaction of athletes' autonomous motivation with their team's captain's leadership could predict team members' adjustment to activities of their club. The participants, 327 students in 24 clubs at 7 universities who were engaging in athletic club activities, completed a questionnaire. Analyses of their responses indicated that the team captains' skills in technical guidance, human relationship adjustment, and command moderated the relation between the athletes' autonomous motivation and the satisfaction of the club members with the clubs' atmosphere. When the captains were high on these skills, the athletes' autonomous motivation was related positively to their satisfaction with their club's atmosphere, whereas the athletes' satisfaction with their club's atmosphere was low when their team's captain was low on these skills. These findings suggest that a fit between individual factors and environmental factors may lead to adjustments to a clubs' activities and, furthermore, that there is a need to consider interactions between individual and environmental factors when considering individuals' adjustment.
Published research has suggested that time perspective plays an essential role in adolescence, and especially that a future time perspective has a strong relation to identity formation and well-being. However, factors that may predict time perspective have not been extensively investigated. Therefore, the present study focused on nostalgia as a factor affecting the formation of time perspective, especially future time perspective. The study examined differences between a nostalgic condition, in which participants were asked to recall a nostalgic memory, and a control condition, in which participants were asked to recall an ordinary memory from their daily life, in relation to the degree of time perspective. The participants, college students (N=44), were assigned randomly to the nostalgic or the control condition. The results indicated that the students in the nostalgic condition had more positive and fewer negative attitudes regarding the future than the students in the control condition did. Furthermore, authenticity mediated the relation between nostalgia and the participants' positive or negative attitudes about the future. Limitations of the study are discussed from the viewpoint of the research design and sub-constructs of time perspective.
The present research explored experiences of Japanese mothers married to non-Asian fathers, during selection of an elementary school for their children and the mothers’ adaptation to that school, focusing on differences between those who chose public and those who chose international schools. Both groups of mothers reported experiencing issues regarding bilingual education, having mixed feelings toward the education that their children were receiving, and experiencing conflicts with their husbands, and that they had adopted strategies that they believed would best support their children. Those mothers who had chosen an international school reported more ambivalent feelings toward their children’s education than did the mothers who had chosen a public school. The findings suggested that children’s enrollment in elementary school could impact parents’ cultural identity by incorporating the parents into multi-layered cultural domains and could also incite tensions between marital partners. It was suggested that teachers and other experts should not impose traditional standards upon intercultural families; instead, they should try to foster closer communication with both parents and children in order to understand the range of issues and resources that these families have. Training about unique issues related to bilingual education and the inner ambivalence of many parents in intercultural marriages may be helpful for experts.