The present study aimed at evaluating effects of different daily exercises on executive function (EF) and mental health in elderly individuals. The twenty-three elderly individuals including; inactive individuals (INACT, n = 9), bowlers (BOWL, n = 8), and runners (RUN, n = 6) were studied (55-64yr). The performance of EF was evaluated by the Stroop Color-Word test. The status of mental health was assessed by the use of questionnaire. The EF was significantly higher in the BOWL and RUN as compared to the INACT. The mental health status in the BOWL was significantly better than the INACT. The present study suggests that daily regular exercises such as bowling and running improve EF in elderly individuals, and in particular BOWL showed a well maintained status of mental health.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower trunk muscular contraction and variety of joint movement on 10 healthy males (20.9 ± 1.6 ages). As a result, with abdominal cave-in compared to abdominal bracing, we found active range of motion and isometric muscular strength in shoulder flexion, shoulder external rotation, hip flexion, hip extension, trunk rotation and trunk extension were increased. Also, the activation of transversus abdominis / obliquus internus on external rotation of shoulder, and the activation of gluteus maximus on trunk extension were increased significantly. The lumbar lordorsis angle and the abdomen length were decreased significantly with abdominal cave-in compared to abdominal bracing.
This study investigated the composition of change in the physical fitness of National Defense Academy of Japan male cadets as they progress through the school years. The subject data were the results of physical fitness measurements for cohorts of students who entered the Academy over four years, from 2004 to 2008. A third-order polynomial was applied to the physical fitness statistical values and the increases with progression through the school years were analyzed. The movement in the age-related change velocity curve derived from that analysis was also investigated. The results suggest that the physical fitness of male cadets can be expected to improve with the physical education program.
Humans show a remarkable capacity to control a variety of motor outputs, ranging from writing with pencils to putting a shot. Controlling a motor output from the preferred hand is made by the descending signals from the primary motor cortex. With respect to motor outputs in humans, the issue of hemispheric specialization is closely tied to handedness and it linked to asymmetric brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for the movement has been attributed to a functional asymmetry of M1 and descending pathways. However, some neuroimaging studies have found bilateral M1 activations either during unimanual tasks. In the present study, we discussed the muscle force control by the bilateral hemisphere.
It is widely accepted that the growth of children is a general marker of the health of children in a community. Moreover, it is assumed that the secular changes are affected by environmental conditions such as inadequate nutrition and poverty. Increases in stature of school children living in Sendai diminished at the end of the 20th century, although they remained taller and heavier than those in the preceding years after World War II. Because there was a reacceleration in growth after a reduction in acceleration, further study is required to confirm whether these secular trends are changing or not.
This review paper summarized the cohort studies from birth and childhood through adolescence to reveal the contribution of birth weight, motor development and physical fitness in early life stages to lifestyle and health benefit in adulthood. As a result, several researches reported that fundamental motor skills in young age might contribute to exercise habits and leisure time physical activities mediating perceived sports competence in adolescence. Moreover, several studies supported that birth weight may be one of the determinants of physical fitness (e.g. cardiorespiratory capacity, muscle strength) in later life stages such as in childhood and adolescence. However, these findings remain incomplete as the number of researches using longitudinal study design is very small. In addition, previous studies have not reached agreement due to the incorrect measurement accuracy of physical activity questionnaires or fitness tests. In future, longitudinal cohort study from birth, infant and children to adolescence would be needed using accurate assessment methods (e.g. accelerometer, V^^.O_2max) to establish a causal association among birth weight, motor skills, physical fitness and physical activity.