We collected anthropometric data (height and weight) and calculated the body mass index (BMI [kg/m2]) of 89
preschool children, aged 3 years (range, 36-47 months), who were living in a rural area of Hokkaido, in order to evaluate
their growth and nutritional status. On average, the children had normal BMI; only 3% of children (n=3) or 1%
of children (n=1) were classified as “obese” or “underweight”, respectively. The obesity screening methods used—
“obesity rates” and “BMI percentile”—had 99% agreement (only 1 child was classified differently), suggesting that
either method is accurate for the evaluation of overweight in preschool children.
This study aimed to reveal the detailed dietary characteristics of 3-year-old children and to provide information
that would be valuable for nutrition education. Subjects were 89 healthy 3-year-old children. Dietary intake was
assessed using 7-day semi-weighed food records during April 2012–2013 for 28 days in total (7 days per season).
Energy from cereals was low and energy from snacks varied widely between individuals (0.0–40.9%). Calcium intake
was 68.6% of the recommended dietary allowance. ABC analysis showed that the major foods contributing to energy/
nutrient intake differed between home and nurseries/kindergartens. Foods that are easily prepared without cooking
were frequently eaten at home. Portion sizes of rice and milk were smaller than the recommended amounts, consistent
with the observed nutrient intake. These results suggest that assessment of children’s nutrient and habitual
dietary intake, food portion sizes, and dietary characteristics can provide a possible approach for designing community-
based dietary education.
Japan faces issues associated with a super-aging society. Thus, extension of healthy life expectancy of patients
through dietary modification is extremely important. However, the number of registered dietitians is not enough to
improve the nutritional health of patients with personalized nutrition care because of the lack of profit from hospital
nutrition divisions. We clarified the strategies to gain profit and relevant challenges by using the SWOT analysis to
improve the dietary department of hospital subject to intervention. Data gathered indicate that the charge for subsidies
for providing therapeutic diet, and nutrition and meal counseling should be increased. The results indicated that
the cost of subsidies for providing therapeutic diet and nutrition and meal counseling should be increased. The results
also suggested the necessity of reducing tasks with opportunity losses. A hospital with the system newly established
has already realized the benefits of the measures implemented through the system. The system supports patients
to take in the appropriate nutrients by increasing the number of registered dieticians and calculating the estimated
energy requirement from the actual measurements of resting energy expenditure for personalized nutrition care.
The key to shorten the period of ill health and extend the healthy life span is to lead a healthy lifestyle with sufficient
exercise and/or physical activity. The target value for physical activity and exercise for Japanese individulals
aged 18–64 years is 23 METs·hour/week and 4 METs·hour/week, respectively. Interval-walking training is effective
to achieve the target values and to prevent and/or improve age-related disorders, declining physical fitness, and exacerbated
lifestyle-related disease, and to extend the healthy life span. The effects of training are enhanced by nutrient
intake in conjunction with exercise training. Effective strategies to enable all citizens to achieve the target values,
regardless of lifestyle and environment, would extend their healthy life span.
Japanʼs health life expectancy, which was requested based on the Basic Life Survey in 2010, was 70.42 for men
and 73.62 for female. The healthy life expectancy in this survey is defined as“ period without restriction on social
life”. In this study, prevention of locomotive syndrome and metabolic syndrome was considered important for prolonging
healthy life span.