The effects on the skin of fluctuating heat and constant radiative heat were evaluated by measuring skin blood flow response, skin temperature and thermal sensation votes under conditions of equalized mean radiative heat. The subjects were exposed to radiative heat for 40 minutes while sitting on a chair in front of an electric radiator. Skin temperature, skin blood flow and complaints of thermal discomfort increased significantly under conditions of constant radiative heat. It was observed that vasodilation, which prevents heat buildup at the surface of the skin, is activated by changing radiative heat levels. Variations in radiative heat from an electric radiator would allow the vasodilation process to transfer heat more efficiently to within the body and thus reduce any burning sensation.
The purpose of this study was to compare physiological and perceptual responses during swimming with clothes and with swimming wear in cold water at 21℃. Six male subjects swam breaststroke at submaximal intensities, which were 57%V_<o2max> in swimming with clothes and 40%V_<o2max> in swimming with swimming wear respectively, in swimming flume at 21 ℃ for 15 min. The variables measured included oxygen uptake (V_<o2>), rectal and three sites (chest, arm and thigh) skin temperatures, blood lactate concentration, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and ratings of thermal sensation (RTS). Many of physiological variables including V_<o2>, HR, rectal, chest and thigh temperatures, and blood lactate concentration in swimming with clothes tended to be higher than those of in swimming with swimming wear, but only the difference of HR was significant. Similarly, perceptual variables including RTS and RPE in swimming with clothes tended to be higher than those of in swimming with swimming wear. The differentiated RPE in swimming with clothes were different from those in swimming with swimming with swimming wear. Although the exercise mode of swimming with clothes was similar to that with swimming wear, the perceptual strain might be different.
This study evaluated the clothing colors in the elderly. We took photo using an elderly woman as model, displayed it on a computer screen, and produced 75 colors of the clothing of the elderly using computer graphics. The 75 colors were evaluated by elderly women and female students. The score of evaluation by the elderly was higher than that by the female students. In the evaluation by the elderly, there was no normative consciousness. The ideal colors selected by the elderly differed from those selected by female students, but importance was commonly placed on "brightness", "function", and "taste". Thus, the elderly seek "brightness" and "function" in clothing, suggesting their high interest in dressing and strong desire to be active. The results of this study indicate that color is an important element of the design to increase the desire to dress nicely and to be active in planning of ready-of ready-clothing for the elderly.
The present study was conducted to investigate the cardiovascular and autonomic responses caused by bathing with different three temperatures (i.e., 29, 35 and 40℃) in six healthy male volunteers under the continuous ECG monitoring, serial echocardiographic examination, blood pressure measurement and venous blood sampling. As a result, hydraulic effects of bathing caused an increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic volume probably based on augmented venous return. With respect to the thermal effects, high temperature (i.e., 40℃) bathing caused increased cardiac workload (i.e., increased heart rate and double product), vasodilatation (i.e., decreased total peripheral vascular resistance) and sympathetic acceleration evaluated by plasma catecholamine and spectral analysis of heat rate variability. Various temperature-dependent neurohumoral factors are considered to underlie the cardiovascular as well as autonomic responses. In conclusion, optimal bathing temperature has to be determined to prevent the sudden cardiac death in bathing.
In this paper, a prediction equation for total body water (TBW) from various anthropometric measurements was estabilished. Fifty-four healthy Japanese young women, aged 18 to 20 years, participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were made of the waist, abdomen, hip, upper arm and thigh circumference, triceps, sub-scapular, abdomen, suprailiac and thigh skinfold thickness, body weight and height. TBW was measured by deuterium oxide (D_2O) dilution method. A step-wise multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that TBW could be predicted from body weight, suprailiac skinfold and abdominal circumference. A step-wise multiple regression analysis gave an equation which yielded a multiple R=0.930 between the predicted TBW and the actual TBW as determined by D_2O dilution method. The standard error of estimete was 1.095 l.
In order to study human psychophysiological responses to pleasure and displeasure, we recorded electrocardiogram and electroencephlogram before and after applying skin care products such as skin care lotion and gel to the face. While feeling pleasure, the change ratios of LF/(LF+HF) and of LF/HF on the heart rate variability were negatively correlated with pre-application ratios (r=-0.737 and r=-0.710, respectively), and interbeat interval had no significance. On the other hand, while feeling displeasure, LF/(LF+HF) increased significantly (P<0.05), and the change values of interbeat interval was positively correlated with the pre-application interval (r=0.723). These results indicate that the pleasure brought about by skin care products leads to well-balanced situation of the cardio-autonomic nervous activity with the fluctuation of the cardio-sympathetic nervous activities, and the displeasure depresses that balance. Under low arousal, while feeling pleasure, the regression coefficient of the power spectra of frequency-fluctuation of alpha waves approached to -1, and while feeling displeasure, that dispersed from -1, It was certain that the regression coefficient of the power spectra of frequency-fluctuation of alpha waves can estimate pleasure and displeasure.